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Sea of Galilee from GamlaGamla

The Fortress Town of Gamala in Galilee

The View of the Sea of Galilee from the Fortress of Gamala


The Legacy of the Jewish Freedom Fighters in the Ancestors of Jesus the Nazarene (Yehoshua HaNotzri)

 The Ancestors of Jesus in First and Second Century Judea BCE

By Robert Mock M.D.

February 2008

Book One

Chapter Seven



Gamla, the Home of the Jewish Resistance Movement

The Home of Mary Magdalene, Mount Arbel and the Links to the Jewish Resistance

The Synergistic Influence of the Family of Matthan ben Eleazar and the “Bandit”, Hezekiah ben Guron

The “Twin” Brothers of Prince Joseph – Princes Ptolas and Clopas

Family of Prince Matthan ben Eliezar

The Revolt of Hezekiah and Judas the Zealot Brothers of Patriarch Jacob

The Revolt of Athronges the Shepherd in the Year of 4 BCE

The Two Cousins on Trial – Jesus or Barabbas?

One Torah – Two Pathways



Family of Prince Matthan ben Eliezar


Gamla, the Home of the Jewish Resistance Movement


Where Prince Matthan ben Eliezar lived we have no direct evidence to date, but the genealogy and history suggests that his family may have lived in the hilltop fortress of GamlaMatthan’s first born son, Jacob, became the Patriarch of the Jerusalem Patriarchate.  He lived in Jerusalem as the first of the Abiudite Davidian Lineage Princes to achieve such predominance in Jewish governance since the days of the Persian Governor Nehemiah and his descendants, who also served as Persian Governors of Judea.  They were all heirs of Governor Zerubabbel by his 1st Babylonian wife, Amytis.  


GamlaSecular history does attest that the second oldest son of Matthan ben Eliezar, Hezekiah the Zealot lived in later years near the western shores of Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee) at the city of Sepphoris while his younger brother Judas of Gamala kept his identity with his native city of Gamla, on the eastern side of Galilean Sea.  The evidence suggests that Jacob, Hezekiah, and Judas grew up in the region of the city of Gamla.


The hillside fortress of Gamala on the Eastern Shoreline of the Sea of Galilee


The city of Gamla in the foothills of the Golan Ridge gets its name from the Hebrew word, gamal, which means camel.  There on a ridge that looked like a camel’s rump, the Hasmonean king, Alexander Jannaeus founded the city, whose historical roots go all the way back to the Early Bronze Age and later conquered by Joshua and the Israelites.  Gamla was annexed into the Hasmonean State in 81 BCE.  


Gamla breach in wallAs late as 66 CE, it was the Jewish Commander of Galilee, Flavius Josephus, who also fortified the city of Gamala in anticipation of the arrival of the Roman legions of General Vespasian (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XIII, 394).  Located on a basaltic rocky ridge completely surrounded by deep ravines and gorges, a shallow saddle separated the city from the rest of the ridge.  This provided the city with great strategic and defensive positions. At the top of the hill the ridge become very narrow and pointed with a deep slope on the northern face and a more graduated slope where the city was built on the south. To the east was the entrance to the city and fronted by a massive square basalt stone fortification wall.   It had multiple square towers on the side while a circular citadel tower was built on the crest


The Breech in the Eastern Fortification Wall at Gamla by Roman Forces in 66 CE

by BiblePlaces


After a siege and two attempts with rampart siege engines, the Roman forces penetrated the fortress on the eastern fortification walls with a five meter-wide breach depicted evidence of significant fighting with arrowheads and numerous ballistic balls. As the fighting progressed into the city, the soldiers and citizens retreated to the citadel on the top of the cliff.  Over four thousand Jewish fighters were killed in battle while over five thousand were killed fleeing towards the cliffs and to their death.  Only until the 70’s was the city of Gamala archeologically rediscovered and identified. 


In the year of 23 BCE, the sister and twin brothers of Joseph were secretly removed to the home of their uncle, Hezekiah the Zealot up in Galilee so they could be outside the reach of King Herod’s grasp, when their father and Hezekiah’s brother, Patriarch of Jerusalem, Jacob ben Matthan was executed on charges of sedition against the royal throne of King Herod.  It also appears that the three daughters, Hannah, Elizabeth, and Joanne, born to the reigning High Priest of Israel, Yeshua III were also secreted to the same region in the same year. was during that year, that King Herod in a fit of amorous passion rearranged the political and religious Jewish hierarchy by executing the leading officer of the Jerusalem Patriarchate and deposing and probably executing the High Priest in order that he could appoint a new High Priest, Simon V Boethus, so that he could marry his daughter, Miriamne II.  


Restored Roman Artillery at Gamala depicting how the Roman used Catapults and Dart Throwers to keep the Jewish defense off the walls while moving the Battering Rams to Breech the Eastern Walls of Gamala evidence is still not clear whether Hezekiah the Zealot, a name that he may have earned in later years, was living in the fortress city of Gamla in 23 BCE, for where we find Hezekiah the Zealot, now involved in the Jewish Resistance Movement around 6 BCE, involved in setting up the Theocratic State of Galilee at the city of Sepphoris on the western coast of GalileeIt appears the younger son, Judas of Gamala, stayed closer to the home front and earned the name of its identity. 


The Minted Coin of Gamla


In the center of the city was an impressive rectangular shaped synagogue oriented in the directed of Jerusalem to the southwest.  The central pillared synagogue had several rows of stone-built benches along the walls. In the courtyard were wide steps that led down to the mikvah ritual baths of purification.  The city, located on the sides of the mountain was terraced with stepped alleys, and in the western part of the city were residences with large rooms suggesting owners of distinction, wealth, and prominence.  The numerous oil presses suggested an agrarian economy that was supported by its olive oil industry.


Within the fire and conflagration of the collapsing walls, the city for nineteen hundred years was preserved. Within the ruins were found unique coins that were minted at Gamla during the Jewish Revolt.  On the observe was written the words, ligeulat, meaning “for the redemption of and on the reverse, Yerushalayim Hakedosha meaning Holy Jerusalem”.  This highlights the strong ties between the Citadel at Gamla and the city of Jerusalem and the firm belief of the citizens at Gamala that their defense was also a defense to save Jerusalem.  The intense Zionistic fervor was preserved to its last days.


After the revolt and execution of Simon V of Perea, the last of the all-Jewish Tobaidite Davidian princes, the next Davidian prince to rise in opposition to Rome was the brother of Patriarch Jacob ben Matthan; Hezekiah the Zealot in 4 BCEJacob, apparently the oldest, was the Patriarch of Jerusalem between the years of 32 to 23 BCEHe was killed, according to David Hughes, on charges of sedition against the Herodian state the same year that Yeshua III (Jesus III) the high priest was removed from the office of the high priest with the same charges.


It was in the year of 23 BCE, the children of Patriarch Jacob were secreted out of Jerusalem and taken to Gamala to be raised in the home of their uncle, the brother of Jacob, Hezekiah the Zealot.  The children of Jacob the Patriarch were; Princess Miriam (12 years old), Prince Joseph (6 years old), and the “twins” Ptolas and Clopas (3 years old). 


Gamla SeigeTheir mother, Cleopatra of Jerusalem, now a widow, was taken under the orders of King Herod and given to be the wife of the new High Priest, Simon IV Boethus.  This young Egyptian Princess, Cleopatra of Jerusalem, appeared to be a pawn of political expediency for King Herod


The Roman Siege of Gamala in the Year of 66 CE


There in the home of Hezekiah (Hizkiah or Ezekias), the four children of Patriarch Jacob; Miriam, Joseph, Ptolas, and Clopas were raised with Hezekiah’s three sons; Judas, Menahem, and Jacob. Truly lovers of Israel, the foster family of Prince Joseph, were classical Zionists, ones who dearly loved their “promised land” and firmly believed in the Providential Covenant of the Promise that “This Land is Our Land”Yet, within the heart of Uncle Hezekiah was a burning ache that it was not part of God’s covenant that they were destined to be slaves and pawns under the tyrannical rule of King Herod. 


All the children were grown up, and adults of their own, in the year that King Herod died in the fall of 4 BCEPrince Joseph, a “Carpenter” or “Master Guildsman” by trade, who was capable of doing any form of construction, was financially struggling under the heavy hand of King Herod, as he sought to eliminate in pogroms of terror any Davidian prince that lived within his kingdom


By the year of 4 BCE, Prince Joseph’s adopted Son, Yehoshua (Jesus), who was conceived by his betrothed bride, Princess Miriam under miraculous circumstances was three years old.   Suddenly the village of Bethlehem “Ephrata” was under siege in a commando massacre raid early in 4 BCE, after a group of Magi from the East came into the city of Jerusalem, looking for the royal child who was destined to be the “king of the Jews”.  The royal family of Prince Joseph and Princess Miriam were not to be found, for in an act of divine providence, Joseph was warned to escape to the land of Egypt.

Walled area of Migdal at the south-east side.

By 4 BCE, the older sister of Prince Joseph, Princess Miriam (also), now at the age of thirty one, was married to Prince Theudas, who was famous to be the last of the anti-Princes and the oldest son of the anti-king Athronges. He was the last dynastic Patriarch of the Pelatiahite Lineage that once descended from the officially approved Jewish lineages of the oldest son of Governor Zerubabbel and his 3rd Jewish wife, Esthra’s second son, Prince Pelatiah.  They also had been outcasts in Jewish society for Pelatiah had married a “foreign” bride. 


The Archeological site of the Magdala Project, where Mary of Magdala lived and probably owned a good part of this village


Prince Theudas was different. He was a man of peace and later became a rabbi (teacher) and leader in the Jesus messianic movement called the Nazarenes. History would later reveal that Theudas was a part of the chosen “Seventy” and later as a “prophet” of renown that Josephus called a “wizard” or “miracle worker”, a name that was also called his nephew, Yehoshua HaMaschiach (Jesus the Messiah). 


The Home of Mary Magdalene, Mount Arbel and the Links to the Jewish Resistance Movement you stand today on the seashore along the northwestern coastline of the Sea of Galilee, at the site reputed to be home of Mary Magdalene at Magdala, an explorer of the ancient past of Jesus’ family can see in the distance an impressive mountain prominence called Mount Arbel.  This mount will be a primary site of the Jewish resistance movement against King Herod as early as 40 to 39 BCE, before the “Battle of Jerusalem” when Herod conquered the forces of King Antigonas and overthrew the city of Jerusalem.  When Jerusalem fell, King Herod took captive the last ruler of the Hasmoneans, Queen Alexandra II in the year of 37 BCE.


An Ariballos or Perfumed Bottle of Aromatic Balm found at Magdala


There is general consensus among scholars that here at Migdal (Magdala) was the home of, Mary of Magdala (Mary Magdalene) that famed botanist, horticulturist, perfume and spice manufacturer, whose life weaved in and out of the Jewish religious and political world.  That she had been identified in Christian history as the prostitute that Jesus saved from stoning, the Magdalene later became one of Rabbi Yehoshua’s most ardent disciples.  This fact only enhances the wonder of this woman, for today and in European medieval cultures in southern Gaul we find that Mary Magdalene was more popular, and revered than the Marian Cult of Mary the Mother of Jesus.  Here along the seashore of Midgal, which in Hebrew means “tower”, Mary Magdalene (in Aramaic meaning Midgal) was the home of the iconic “Black Madonna” who in esoteric terms symbolized the “Hidden Madonna” where the statutes are “hidden” in the crypts of numerous of the Notre Dame cathedrals in France where the poor, the Gypsies, and the disenfranchised pilgrims worship. 

Magdala's port is submerged under the sea of Galilee.

Looking from Magdala, is the Port of Magdala now submerged under the waters of the Sea of Galilee.  About 7 kilometers to the southwest the hump-backed prominence of the Mount Arbel arises in the horizon.


The village of Magdala was located on the northwestern coastline of the Sea of Galilee.  Yet, as you looked to the southwest of that village the humped back mountain range of Mount Arbel rises over the Galilean landscape about 400 meters or 1200 feel above the seashore of the Port and Village of Migdala.  


Today this mountain ridge is a favorite retreat for mountain hikers with a historical religious imagination to match as you walk up the mountain prominence and peer over the cliffs. There below is reported to be one of the most beautiful vistas of the Lake called Kinneret (Sea of Galilee). 


Also upon that mountain ridge have been discovered a fortified bunkers that today are identified as the fortifications of Hezekiah the Zealot in his war he waged against Herodians and the Romans in 6 BCEAccording to the military accounts of the wars between Herod and the Zealots, Josephus gives the following account of how Governor Herod, after he was given the kingship of Judea by the Roman Senate in 40 BCE, he had to first subdue and pacify Galilee, Samaria, and JudeaFirst they had to destroy or demoralize the Jewish Resistance Movement even before they could stage a military siege against Jerusalem and conquer the Hasmonean royal family of the Maccabees. of the most resistant and best fortified of the Jewish right wing “radicals” militias which Josephus called the robbers were the Jewish patriots at the Mount called Arbel.  Well entrenched in bunkers protected by treacherous paths below the cliffs, the Herodian army could not reach the bunkers and fortifications.  It was the military genius of the Governor of Galilee, Herod the Idumean who devised a way of flushing out the Jewish militantsHe had his soldiers lowered down in wooden boxes, and there with poles and hooks, pull the Jewish freedom fighters out of the caves, pushing them to their death over the shear cliffs to the valley below. 


The Archeological Digs at Mary Magdalene’s Village of Magdala –  by Magdala Project


Flavius Josephus, in his Histories called the The Wars of the Jews, wrote about how, in the years of 39-40 BCE, he used these unique military techniques to kill the Jewish resistant fighters. 


The Arbel cliffs in the back of Migdal.Flavius Josephus - " Herod willingly dismissed Silo to go to Ventidius, but he made an expedition himself against those that lay in the caves. Now these caves were in the precipices of craggy mountains, and could not be come at from any side, since they had only some winding pathways, very narrow, by which they got up to them; but the rock that lay on their front had beneath it valleys of a vast depth, and of an almost perpendicular declivity; insomuch that the king was doubtful for a long time what to do, by reason of a kind of impossibility there was of attacking the place.


The Arbel Cliffs overlooking the pass and ancient road leading between Cana and Magdala on the

Sea of Galilee seashore.


Yet did he at length make use of a contrivance that was subject to the utmost hazard; for he let down the most hardy of his men in chests, and set them at the mouths of the dens. Now these men slew the robbers and their families, and when they made resistance, they sent in fire upon them [and burnt them]; and as Herod was desirous of saving some of them, he had proclamation made, that they should come and deliver themselves up to him; but not one of them came willingly to him; and of those that were compelled to come, many preferred death to captivity… By this means, Herod subdued these caves, and the robbers that were in them.” (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, 1, xvi, 4)


Yet, Josephus took note of the impregnable caves of that region and again, this time under his military command, set up resistance fortifications against the arriving forces of the Roman General Vespasian around the year of 66 CE. 


Flavius Josephus - "I also fortified, in the Lower Galilee, the cities Tarichee, Tiberias, Sepphoris, and the villages, the cave of Arbela,... I also laid up a great quantity of corn in these places, and arms withal, that might be for their security afterward.” 


If a hiker were to take a walk from Khirbet Kana, known as the biblical Cana and travel over to Magdala, down by the seashore of Lake Kinneret, or if they took the climb up the slopes of Mount Arbel and then descended down the other side beneath the towering cliffs of Mount Nitai, they would have walked over the remains of a recent archeological discovery by the Hebrew University at the Arbel National Park, a new synagogue dating from the Talmudic period of the Roman and Byzantine eras


Along this walk, at the Wadi Hamam and located at the base of the Arbel cliffs of Mount Nitai, a synagogue was built.  This synagogue appears almost to be a memorial to life of the Jewish Resistant Fighters that  rose in defense of their Jewish homelands, even in the face of the overwhelming odds against the Roman forces of Caesar Augustus and his “client king” Herod the Great. 


A view from the top of Arbel cliffs.According to the excavation website article on the archeological finds that were reported on November 21, 2007, the basalt and chalk stone synagogue’s northern sector revealed a unique mosaic constructed from 4 mm. size stones of multiple colors along the eastern aisle, whose drawings, unique, having no parallel in synagogue archeological discoveries. The scene depicts artisans and woodworkers holding up various implements of their professional trade alongside a monumental building


The Arbel Cliffs overlooks the Sea of Galilee with a spectacular panorama overlooking the  Sea of Galilee.  Here looking at the northwestern shores of  Lake Kinneret, we look down upon the modern village of Migdal (center left) and the Kibbutz Ginosar (center along the shoreline) and above along the

shore the ancient village of  Capernaum. Continue on straight towards the east is where the Jordan River flows into Kinneret.  Along the right side across the Lake are the Golan Heights.


Also at the Roman-era Jewish village site the residential dwellings were noted to be sturdy two-story buildings that included a nearby sophisticated olive oil press.  Though scholars are still arguing whether this synagogue was of the Roman second to fourth century CE era or the later Byzantine fifth to sixth century era, we have to ask, was this village originally built in the 1st century Jewish days of Yehoshua?   This mosaic suggests that here resided a village of artisans, and we immediately are drawn to the image of “Joseph the Carpenter who as a Prince of David born about 29 BCE, was recognized as a tekton or Master Artisan” skilled in all manner of the building trade profession. According to the director of the excavation at Khirbet Wadi Haman, Dr. Uzi Leibner from the Interdisciplinary Research Center in Jewish Studies, at the Institute of Archaeology at the Hebrew University who wrote:


Dr. Uzi Leibner - “There are those who tend to believe that the rural Jewish villagers of that era lived in impoverished houses or in huts and that the magnificent synagogues existed in contrast to the homes that surrounded them,” said Dr. Leibner. ‘While it is true that the synagogues were built of a quality that exceeded the other structures of the village, the superior quality private dwellings here testify to the impressive economic level of the residents.”


We find this admission remarkable as the traditional Christian understanding of the life of Jesus of Nazareth was that He was born into the family of a peasant, who lived a simple life as the son of a carpenter.  The traditional beliefs in Jesus continue with the admission that He probably did not have a good education, probably did not read, much less speak Hebrew, but rather Aramaic, the language of the poor and the disenfranchised of the Galilean peasant populationTo write a series of articles on the life of Yehoshua (Jesus) as a Davidian prince gives us a historical foundation.  If this genealogical foundation fits seamless within the life and times of first century BCE and CE Judaism, it also gives a credible assent to its validity.  Albeit, the historical implications upon our understanding of Jesus’ life and its impact on all religions takes a radical departure from the understanding of His life in traditional Roman Catholic Christian Orthodoxy

Mosaic floor found at site of newly discovered Galilee synagogue shows workman with woodworking tool. (Photo: Gabi Laron/Hebrew University Institute of Archaeology)

On the other hand, these historical implications are also a radical departure from the understanding of within traditional Jewish Orthodoxy of one of the Jewish people’s own sons.  Both of these great orthodoxies have polarized on the historical periphery of what is recognized historically as the most remarkable and influential person of all ages. Truly, concerning the life of Jesus, everyone has an opinion. With the inclusion of the Jewish genealogy of the family of Yehoshua ben Yosef (Jesus the son of Joseph) a different focal point of discussion may emerge.  


Jewish Carpenter and “Tekton” (skilled artisan) in all the works of artistic construction of major building  is depicted on a Jewish Synagogue mosaic at the base of Mount Nitai, on the Hump-back range of Mount Arbel.


Rabbi Jesus frequented the roads between Magdala and CapernaumThis was the main Roman road that traversed around the Sea of GalileeYehoshua was also historically documented to be intimate with the people living in Cana and Nazareth.  It now appears that his adopted father, a Davidian prince, Yosef ben Yaakov (Joseph son of Jacob) was raised in the midst of a family of influence in Jewish Herodian society.  As the Patriarch of Jerusalem, Jacob was now suddenly executed in 23 BCE as an enemy of the Herodian State of Judea, Joseph and his sister, Miriam, and “twin” younger brothers, Ptolas and Clopas’ lives were now at risk in an emerging era in which all Princes of David were targeted for elimination. Is it any wonder that Galilee became the center for the Jewish Resistance Movement for the population was equally anti-Herodian as they were anti-Roman? 


We now gain insight into why Yehoshua (Jesus) spent most of His life in the Province of Galilee, the hot-bed of Jewish nationalism?  Was this not where, Jesus’ great grandfather, Matthan ben Eliezar apparently lived, and where his great uncles, Hezekiah the Zealot and Judas of Galilee from Gamala (Gamla) also lived?  Is not the history more compatible that the closer Yehoshua came to the geographical center of Jewish life, Jerusalem, the more dangerous it was to His life? 


Do not the testimonies of the gospels collaborate that within the confines of the walls of Jerusalem, Yehoshua was a threat to the now Hellenized Zadokian priests of the House of Hanan, called the High Priests Ananias and his son-in-law, Caiphas?  Were not the Pharisee disciples of Shammai, a Prince of David from the now extinct all-Jewish lineages of the House of David, espousing a retreat and withdrawal into a planetary ghetto of Judaism?  Were they not in direct opposition to the Pharisee arguments of Yehoshua who espoused the views of the disciples of Hillel the Great, most of whom had fled for their lives to Damascus and other enclaves of safety, to open the doors of Judaism and not assimilate Hellenism into Judaism but to conquer Hellenism with the truth of the Almighty God of Israel?    


As Yehoshua (Jesus) walked from Nazareth to Cana and over to Magdala and onward to Capernaum, to the northeast, and Tiberius, to the southwest, it was there He looked up to the cliffs towering over His head to the caves and fortifications where the troops and militias of His great uncles, Hezekiah the Zealot and Judas of Galilee may have fought prior to their capture and execution?  It may have been there where Jesus Himself retreated to safety in order to commune with His Father in heaven on the next path of His mission for the redemption not only of the Jewish people, but for all the “lost Sheep of the House of Israel”.  It was this ancient Roman Road that traversed from the Netufa Valley, down the valley along the Arbel Wadi and stream, as He returned back to Lake Kinneret from Khirbet Cana (biblical Cana), Zipphoris (biblical Sepphoris) and Nazareth. 

The photo is taken on top of the cliffs, looking west, overlooking the Arbel valley.

Air Visual View of the Cliff of Mount Arbel, the Sea of Galilee, Magdala with her port, the Wadi Hamam Road to Sepphoris, Cana, and Nazareth and the lakeside road to Tiberias (southwest) and Caperneum (northeast).


As the rugged terrain depicts, in the photo taken upon the precipice of Mount Arbel looking down upon the Arbel valley, just over the ledge of the cliff is a ladder that today hikers climb down to walk upon a path just below the cliff.  Here one can walk along a winding and narrow pathway to the fortress built into caves just under the cliffs. Within these trenches and caves the Jewish freedom fighters looked down upon some of the most beautiful scenery in Israel.  From there, the rugged and the adventurous take a winding path down to a spring that was the water source for the ancient villages below.  The modern Arab village to the right is the village of Wadi-Hamam, at the junction where the road turns to the right heading to the Sea of Galilee and Magdala.   


As you look across the Arbel Valley ahead are another set of cliffs, the Nithai Cliffs, rising 900 feet above the Sea of Galilee.  Within the imbedded natural caves, were the hideouts for the Jewish fighters on both sides of the Arbel Valley that were used by the Jewish Resistance against the armies of Herod the Great and when Herod was under siege by the incoming Roman armies from the Roman Governors in Damascus?  With a focused attention, above the cliff of Nitai on the grassy slope above, there can be seen today an impressive wall built by the Romans almost a 1000 feet in length with nine towers that the besieging Romans used to seal off the Jewish resistant fighters hiding in the caves from food, water, and provisions.


The Synergistic Influence of the Family of Matthan ben Eleazar and the “Bandit”, Hezekiah ben Guron


If there was family that influenced the Jewish mental image of “Edom” and the Roman oppression upon the Jewish peasants in Galilee and Judea, it was the family of Matthan ben Eleazar, the great grandfather of Jesus the Nazarene (Yehoshua Ha Notzri).  The effect was far reaching. 


Gamla synagogue ruinsAccording to the Roman Jewish historian Robert Killian, he wrote of the religious and political leaders who influenced the polarization of Jewish opinion against the Romans, the Herodians, and against those that felt that it was essential to pander and appease the globalist Romans and Hellenists at the expense of the Torah commands of the God of Israel.   These power brokers in Jewish society affected the lives of all the people in Judea and Galilee, from the peasants all the way to the throne of the High Priest of IsraelConcerning the High Priest Yeshua III ben Phabet and Phabet’s brother, the High Priest Simon IV ben Boethus, whom Herod the Great married his daughter, Mariamne II, in the year of 23 BCE, Robert Killian muses in private communication:


The Synagogue of Gamla – by BiblePlaces


Robert Killian of Monaco – “Simon ben Boethus, I personally believe, knew how to please Herod the Great!  He kept his head until 5 BC, but, not his wife! (Cleopatra of Jerusalem).  After just two years, Herod "took" Cleopatra as his fifth wife. (some say she was his 6th, 7th, or 8th).  Simon ben Boethus was involved in the 5 BC (8 BCE conventional history) "attempt" to poison Herod the Great. It was that year when Doris, the "first and last" wife of Herod was again “put-out" of the palace. Antipater (III) his first son, (about 45 years old), also lost his "co-regency" with Herod that he had enjoyed since his and Doris's re-integration into palace life in 14-12 BC to counteract the "popularity" of Aristobulus and Alexander, two of Herod's younger sons, before Herod has them "strangled" at Sebastis in 4 BC not 7 BC, for Herod did not die until the first week of 1 BC, just a few days after the lunar eclipse of 9/10 January. So, Simon did live until at least 5 BC when he was replaced.


Joshua (Yeshua III) ben Fabius (Phabi) certainly was involved in the "opposition" to Herod the Great, as were so many of the "true Jewish blood-line families" that supported the promotion of the "real" Aaronic bloodline for the High Priesthood. This had been abruptly terminated about 163 BC with the Syrian invasion that "put-out" the Onias (current H-P) who did go to Egypt to "establish" another Temple at Leontopolis. Which he did!  Of course, you know, that about 167 BC-163 BC, the Jewish Temple no longer "had" a high-priest of the "Aaronic blood-line. That was when the Jewish Temple (in Leontopolis Egypt) was begun, in direct "opposition to the Temple in Jerusalem. It was also the "time" that the Essene sect "went to the wilderness" throughout the region. Engedi and Qumran became their refuge. They lived, as much as possible, in peace!


Ishmael Phaebi (66th High Priest) can be identified as an oppositionHigh Priest to the “powerful family” that monopolized the High-Priest position (House of Ananus the Elder).     It probably was this “rebellion” against the "unclean high-priests” that were “buying the priest-hood” from the defacto "rulers" from the time of the first Hasmonean strong-man.  This family was mostly responsible for the death of Jesus Christ (Yehoshua HaMaschiach) and James the Just, who I still maintain was the first son of Theudas ben Athronges of the Pelatiahite “line” (who was married to the older sister of Joseph the Carpenter, Miriam). Theudas and Athronges were two of the 19 "claimants" for the Jewish throne at the death of Herod the Great.


Gamla aerial from westI must mention that Hezekiah, the second son of Matthan b. Ezar (Eleazar) was (perhaps) killed quite early in the career of Herod the Great. There is the record of Josephus who says that Herod, before he became King, killed "the robber" Hezekiah.  Therefore, I suppose, that it was Hezekiah's and the descendants of the family of (High Priest) Joshua (III) ben Fabius with all of the "tribe of Judah", (the True-Blood) Jewish line from both of the half half-brothers, Matthan-thrice (married) and the sons of Matthan, that were left, but not Hezekiah, who was killed by Herod about 45 BC not 4 BC, that were the "thorn in the palm" of Herod the Great throughout the full 34 (or) 37 year reign of this tempestuous ruler of Israel.”


Aerial View of the “Masada of the North” called Gamla -  by BiblePlaces


The question, who was this person called Hezekiah opens up a new source of inquiry, with researchers of various traditions who may achieve different understanding of historyIt is Robert Killian of Monaco who claims that Hezekiah was the Zealot leader who fought against King Herod in the year of 47 BCE.  Yet, Genealogist David Hughes argues for a more traditional view when he writes:


David HughesThe rebellion of Judas "The Zealot" "of Galilee" (the son of Hizkiah "The Zealot") in 4 BC, and, the rebellion of Judas "of Gamala" or "the Galilean" (the brother of Hizkiah "The Zealot") in AD 6, are often confused in history, since the rebellion recorded in Acts 5:37 refers to the 4 BC rebellion, and the historian Josephus refers to the AD 6 rebellion, however, neither mentions them both. The AD 6 rebellion took place the year that Herod-Archelaus was deposed by the Roman Emperor due to complaints about him, whose realms, Judea, Samaria, and Idumea, were then annexed by the Roman Empire as the Roman Province of Judea. The rebellion was suppressed by the Roman Governor of Judea, Coponius, supported by Cyrenius (Publicus Sulpicius Quirinius), during his second governorship of Syria.


This then opens the question, who was the Hezekiah the Zealot who fought against Herod the Great in the year 47 BCE?  It was in the year of 2006 the BibleSearchers posted a article titled, “Rabbi Harvey Falk defends “Jesus the Nazarene’s Mission to the Gentiles”, in which the great debates between the disciples of Hillel and the disciples of Shammai sought a resolution between the acrimony between these two great schools of rabbinic

education, when they met at the home of Hananiah ben Hezekiah ben Gurion.


BibleSearchers Reflections - Most scholars suggest that these debates occurred Before the Common Era (BCE) and during the formative periods of both schools, predominately between 30 BCE and 20 BCE.  The tensions were high between the two schools and a neutral ground was proposed; the home of Hananiah ben Hezekiah ben Gurion.  He was best known for his scholarly work on the Book of Ezekiel, the leader of the synod that compiled the Hebrew Scriptures called the TaNaKh and the compiler of the “Megillat Ta’anit” the official Jewish scroll on the Jewish fasting days


It was at Hananiah’s house, they had a retreat (Shabbat 13B) in the hopes that a private setting with a respected scholar would insure peace between the two schools.  The problem was that Hananiah was biased.  He was the son of Hezekiah, the founder of the Zealot Party that Josephus called a bandit and was executed by Herod the Great.  It was the Zealots who were pushing for armed revolt against Rome, hated all Gentiles and maintained close ties with Shammai


Breached WallOn the day that the first vote was taken on the “eighteen measures” several disciples of Hillel were killed by the disciples of Shammai, called the Beit Shammai. Whether it was the Beit Shammai, the Zealots or the assassin squads of the Zealots called the Sicarii (dagger men) is irrelevant. They were initially all closely affiliated.  What was recognized in both Talmuds is that swords were permitted to be in the house of Hananiah on that day of infamy.”


The Breech in the Wall of the Fortress City of Gamala in the Golan Heights


According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, Hezekiah ben Garon (Gurion) was the first of the Jewish Zealots who not only was a Jewish martyr who fought for the freedom of the Jews, but whose ideology was not for political revolution but bound by a higher calling of preserving the integrity of the Jewish life of Torah living. 


Jewish Encyclopedia - A martyr whom some scholars identify with Hezekiah ben Garon of the Talmud (Shab. 12a, 13b, 98b, 99a). He fought for Jewish freedom and the supremacy of the Jewish law at the time when Herod was governor of Galilee (47 B.C.). When King Aristobulus, taken prisoner by the Romans, had been poisoned by the followers of Pompey, Hezekiah ("Ezekias" in Josephus, "Ant." xiv. 9, §§ 2 et seq) gathered together the remnants of that king's army in the mountains of Galilee and carried on a successful guerrilla war against the Romans and Syrians, while awaiting the opportunity for a general uprising against Rome. The pious men of the country looked upon him as the avenger of their honor and liberty. Antipater, the governor of the country, and his sons, however, who were Rome's agents in Palestine, viewed this patriotic band differently. In order to curry favor with the Romans, Herod, unauthorized by the king Hyrcanus, advanced against Hezekiah, took him prisoner, and beheaded him, without the formality of a trial; and he also slew many of his followers. This deed excited the indignation of all the patriots. Hezekiah and his band were enrolled among the martyrs of the nation.”


The Sefer Yohassin confirms that these eighteen degrees or “rules of contention” were initially made in the chamber of Hananiah ben Hezekiah ben Gurion. It was the Jerusalem Perspective Forum site that confirmed the alliance of Shammai the Great and used these as part of his mission to gain control of the Sanhedrin which in fact put a great split between the Pharisees who identified with Hillel or Shammai.


Jerusalem PerspectiveShammai had usurped control of the Religious Sanhedrin of Seventy-One (c. 20-10 B.C.E.) via a coup de main carried out by his Zealot-Nationalist bedfellows, who killed a number of Hillel's sage-prophets prior to the vote regarding the "Eighteen Measures." (BT Shab. 17a; JT Shab. 1:4). This event took place at the home of Hananiah ben Hezekiah, where his upper chamber doubled as a House of Study and a meeting place for the plebeian and patrician sages. Hananiah was respected for his scholarship by the disciples of Hillel and Shammai.

Hananiah's father, Hezekiah ben Garon, whom Josephus calls a "chief bandit," was actually the founder of the Zealot Party. However, Hananiah was apolitical and devoted himself solely to the study of the Torah and exploring the mysteries in the Book of Ezekiel. So, Hananiah's home served as neutral territory for meetings between the plebeian and patrician sages. What followed in the wake of the aforementioned killings was a sort of "cold war" between the House of Hillel and the House of Shammai. Attempts at arranged marriages between the two schools failed to bridge their socio-economic, geo-political and religio-ideological divide.”


Looking across the Sea of Galilee towards the Golan Heights to the East – Lazer Beams


It may have been that Hezekiah ben Garon was the ideal Zealot”, and a contemporary of Prince Matthan ben Eleazar, the father of the Patriarch of Jerusalem, Jacob ben Matthan, Hezekiah the Zealot, and Judas of Gamala at the fortress city of Gamala.  We might even speculate that Jesus’ great uncle, Hezekiah the Zealot was the namesake who was named after Hezekiah ben Garon, who if Hughes’ date of birth for Hezekiah the Zealot is correct, was born in the same year that Hezekiah ben Garon was beheaded by Herod the Idumean, the governor of Galilee. 


The “Twin” Brothers of Prince Joseph – Princes Ptolas and Clopas


According to the Davidic Dynasty by  David Hughes, by the same year, 4 BCE, the twins, Ptolas and Clopas, now twenty two years of age each, were mature young men and no doubt married and with familiesBoth twins carried the family names, in their Greek form, from their mother, Cleopatra of Jerusalem, who was the last of the Egyptian Ptolemaic Imperial family. Prince Ptolas, only identified in the apocryphal literature, was a shortened name for Ptolemaeus or Ptolemy.  These name changes were not unlike Prince Heli, the father of Mary the mother of Jesus, whose Greek regnal name was Prince Alexander III Helios.  The youngest twin, Prince Clopas or known as Cleopas in some texts, was also a shortened contraction of the Greek name, Kleopatros, the masculine form of the feminine Egyptian regnal name of Cleopatra.  Here we see the two twins, Ptolas and Clopas were named after their grandmother and uncle, the last king and queen of Egypt, Queen Cleopatra VII and King Ptolemy XIV.


Prince Ptolas was married to a young Davidian, Princess Escha, the daughter of Prince Joachim. She was the dynastic heiress of the Onaidite Jewish Lineage.  Ptolas died a premature death and in the apocryphal literature his widow, Escha, moved in with her in-laws, Joseph and Mary.  A few years later, Princess Escha died and left her children in the custody of their Uncle Joseph and Aunt Mary.  As David Hughes explains:


David Hughes“It has been conjectured by Catholic theologians that these children were Jesus’ so-called "brothers" and "sisters", rather than whom the Protestants say were Joseph and Mary’s later children, while the Orthodox schools teach that they were Joseph’s children in a "levirate-marriage" with his brother’s [Ptolas’] widow, Escha, which is not improbable nor contrary to Jewish practice at that time (Deuteronomy 25:5).


Prince Clopas (Cleopas) the youngest of the twins could be identified with Alphaeus (Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15), which is the Syriac spelling of Clopas’ name. As Hughes suggests:


Kineret_by_yuri_peressDavid Hughes“He (Clopas) was the husband of ("the other") Mary, the "sister-in-law", not "sister", of "The Virgin" Mary (John 19:25)Clopas, and his wife, "the other" Mary (not "The Virgin"), were the parents of at least four sons and five daughters.”


Looking across the Sea of Galilee towards the Golan Heights to the East – Lazer Beams


As researchers have tried over the centuries to sort out the genealogies of the biblical narratives, BibleSearchers suggests a different solution for the identity of Prince Cleopas and the other Mary” of the resurrection narrative traditions.  The historical traditions are quite strong that Prince Joseph also died a premature death.  David Hughes suggests that Prince Joseph could have also “married” Escha in a “levirate-marriage” with his brother’s Ptolas wife, Escha, and thereby be her guardian and the custodian of her children.  This same Jewish custom of caring for the “widows” and “orphans” could also solve a mystery in reverse.


If Prince Joseph did die a premature death, leaving Mary, born about 20 BCE, alone with her son, Jesus (Yehoshua), it is possible and very probable that Joseph’s younger “twin” brother, Prince Cleopas, who was born about 26 BCE, was eligible for a “levirate-marriage” with Miriam.  Together, Prince Cleopas with Mary, the mother of Jesus, could have been the parents of the “brethren” of Jesus with Mary truly as their real biological mother? 


One of the sons would have been Prince Simeon ben Clopas, the second Nasi of the Jewish Nazarenes who was nominated in 63 CE after the stoning to death of James the Just, the brother of Jesus (Yehoshua) in the year of 62 CE by Ananus the Younger, the high priest, and son of Ananus the Elder, whose family had a passionate hatred to the family of Jesus.


This position of Mary being the mother of the “brethren of Jesus” has many detractors of the Roman Orthodox Church in defense of their non-biblical position for the perpetual “virginity” of Mary.  The mystery identity of the other Mary could easily have been Joseph’s older sister, Miriam, the wife of Prince Theudas, who would reasonable be a supporting sister-in-law of Jesus’ mother Mary during His death.   We also have to consider that Joseph’s sister, Miriam’s husband was truly one of Jesus’ close supporters as one of the chosen “Seventy Apostles”.


The family of Jacob the Patriarch were mature adults, as we have documented by the year of 4 BCE, for a major transformation was about to erupt within the household of the family of Prince Joseph


                                 The Family of Prince Matthan ben Eliezar


                   1st Son                                      2nd Son                                           3rd Son

­                        | ________________________|_______________________­___|

                        |                                                 |                                                    |

Prince Jacob ben Matthan      Prince Hizkiah ben Matthan     Prince Judas ben Matthan

   Called “The Patriarch”                     Called the “Zealot”              Called the “Galilean” from Gamala

               c. 50 - 23 BCE                       c. 47 - 4 BCE                                   c. 45 – 6 CE

      Executed by King Herod     Executed by the Herodian Military  Nailed to the Cross by Varus

                       |                                                  |                                                     |

Prince Joseph “the Carpenter”            Judas the Zealot

       29 BCE to Unknown                   c, 25 BCE – 4 BCE

Prince Ptolas   |                  Crucified on a Cross by Roman Governor Varus

Prince Clopas  |                 Menahem the Zealot |

                          |                                                      |

Prince Jesus the Nazarene              Simon ben Judas

                                   Crucified by Roman Governor Tiberius Julius Alexander (47 CE)

                                                            Jacob ben Judas

                                   Crucified by Roman Governor Tiberius Julius Alexander (47 CE)


The Revolt of Hezekiah and Judas the Zealot Brothers of Patriarch Jacob

The Rise and Fall of the Zealots and the Theocratic State Judea in Galilee


Joseph and Mary were on the way or in the land of Egypt by the time Herod the Great’s deathPrince Hezekiah (Hizkiah), the brother of the Patriarch Jacob ben Matthan during these years was a brigade-officer in the Jewish military of King HerodUpon the death of King Herod the Great and the failed bid to capture the throne of Herod by Simon V of Perea, the Zealot roots of Jesus’ uncle, Hezekiah the Zealot erupted into full bloom.  He still had the memory of his brother, the Patriarch of Jerusalem Jacob ben Matthan, being executed by King Herod the Great in the year of 23 BCE.  These were vivid flashbacks within his mindHezekiah was now the family Patriarch of the House of Matthan ben Eleazar, and heir to his father’s estate.  The reminder kept piercing his mind that it was the destined duty of every Prince of David to be prepared to carry the mantle of the royal authority of the House of David, and to restore the throne back to the legitimate sons of Israel’s famous king. 


As the head of the household, two decades prior, he had secretly rescued the family of his brother from Jerusalem and brought Miriam, Joseph and the two younger “twins”, Ptolas and Clopas to live in his own house there in the wild country” high up in the protected mountain ridge at the fortress of Gamala. Now the children of Patriarch Jacob were older, married, and had established their own families. With Hezekiah’s claim to the throne of Herod, his entire Herodian brigade with him. After this date, Hizkiah moved from a loyalist to what the history of Josephus called the head of the robbers”.  His “brigade quickly overran the whole Galilean countryside, carrying the banner of resistance into Judea proper.  Yet, the Herodian powerful military prevailed and Hizkiah the Zealot was captured and executed in the year of 4 BCE. 


The City of Sepphoris in Galilee


Upon the death of Prince Hezekiah (Hizkiah) who was called “The Zealot”, his son Prince Judas “The Zealot” of Galilee succeeded his father as the leader of the Jewish Resistance MovementBecoming the head of his father’s guerrilla-army of Jewish freedom resistance fighters, Judas the Zealot continued the Davidian revolt in honor of the God of his father, Hezekiah. led his armed insurrectionists on an assault against the Roman garrison that was at the king’s armory in the Roman fortress city of Sepphoris. This was the capital of Galilee at that time.   It was their desire to create a Theocratic State of Galilee where the city of Sepphoris was to be its national capitalThere, they replenished their weapons of war for the Jewish militia. But, Judas was killed early in his revolt, late in the year of 4 BCEHis followers including two of his seven sons were captured later that year.  The Roman Governor of Syria Publius Quintilius Varus had been swiftly dispatched into the northern regions of King Herod’s realm


The Ruins of the City of Sepphoris


Judas’ militia forces were surrounded by the much larger Roman forces outside the city of Sepphoris in western Galilee. There 2000 Jewish freedom fighters were captured and crucified on the crosses that dotted the landscape surrounding the burning city of Sepphoris while the rest of the population of Sepphoris was carried off to captivity or massacred by the invading Roman forces


Unknown to Joseph and his family, now safely living in the outer regions of the city of Cairo, his uncle, Hezekiah the Zealot, his cousin, Judas the Zealot of Galilee, and two second cousins, were now dead in the defense of their belief that a “messiah” would arise from the loins of one of the lineages of the Prince descendants of King David.  It was later in the Great Sanhedrin, that Theudas and Judas the Zealot of Galilee was noted by the Nasi of the Sanhedrin, Prince Gamaliel, the grandson of Hillel the Great, as an example of a failed Jewish messianic leader, when the Sadducees of the family descendants of the House of Boethus in the Sanhedrin sought to destroy Peter and several others of the apostles.  


Image:Israel - Gamla path 001.jpgActs 5:35-39“Men of Israel, take heed to yourselves what you intend to do regarding these men.  For some time ago Theudas rose up, claiming to be somebody.  A number of men, about four hundred joined him. He was slain, and all who obeyed him were scattered and came to nothing. After this time, Judas of Galilee rose up in the days of the census (6 CE), and drew away many people after him. He also perished, and all who obeyed him were dispersed.  And now I say to you, keep away from these men and let them alone; for if this plan or this work is of men, it will come to nothing; but if it is of God, you cannot overthrow it – lest you might be found to fight against God.” 


Failed it may have seen, the valor of the resistance fighters continued through the sons of Judas the Galilean, James and Simon, who were first cousins to Joseph the Carpenter.


The Ruins of the City of Gamala


The Jewish revolt against the Romans had been served a fatal blow but it also became the fodder for the future revolts against the Romans in 66 and 132 BCEJacob the Zealot of Galilee had seven sons; Jacob, Simon, Menahem, Jair, Levi, Saphath, and Sosas.  His two oldest sons, Jacob and Simon would later be imprisoned and executed on “false charges” of sedition by Tiberius Julius Alexander in the year of 47 CE.   


Prince Simon’s youngest son, Kosevah (Cocheba) would become the father of one of Judaism most famous revolutionaries, Simon V Bar-Kochba. Simon V, with the blessings of the famous Rabbi Akiba ben Yosef took the title of King of the Jews in the year of 132 BCE and the mantle of the Messiah of the Jews”.  Changing his name to Bar Kokba” (Son of the Star), he began to mint his own coins, formed his own government, and prepared to rebuild the third temple of the JewsWhen he died his Davidian lineage became extinct. The “appointed time” of the God of Israel had not come.  Judas the Zealot’s son, Prince Jair whose son was one of the last Zealot rebels leaders at Masada, during the years of 67 to 70-73 CE, was called Eleazar ben Jair


In a speech that was attributed to Eleazar ben Jair, he declared, that it is a glorious privilege to die for the principle that none but God is the true Ruler of mankind, and that rather than yield to Rome, which is slavery, men should slay their wives and children and themselves, since their souls will live forever (ib. 8, §§ 6-7).  As the Jerusalem Encyclopedia exclaimed, “This is certainly not the language and conduct of the leader of a band of "robbers," as Josephus persists in calling this party. In their opposition to Rome the Zealots were clearly inspired by religious motives”.  (Jewish Encyclopedia, “Zealots”)


Gamla: Jacob ben Hezekiah, the brother of Judas the Zealot and Menahem, the sons of Hezekiah the Zealot, was a third cousin of Joseph the father of Jesus with whom he was raised with in the fortress of Gamala.  This Jacob was the father of three sons; Hur, Eleazar, and Uri, who were the fifth cousins of Yehoshua (Jesus).  Hur, the oldest, became the father of Judah “Ben-Hur”, whose son was taken as part of the captives to Italy after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Roman General Titus. “Ben Hur” became the famous ancestor of the Italian family of nobles called the Princes of Oria.


The Ruins of the City of Gamala


Within the extended ancestral family of Jesus the Nazarene, we begin to see the formation of the roots of Jewish Zealotry, and the grass roots forces of right-wing Jewish nationalism. The Theocratic Jewish State was first put into a theoretical model of Jewish governance by Ezra the Scribe and practiced in reality with the clerics of Judea in the days of the Persian rulership over the Persian Satrap of Judea


It was Prince Nehemiah, who became one of its greatest supporters, and through his family lineage, the Abuidite Lineage of Davidian princes, this concept of a theocratic Jewish state was resurrected in the days of King Herod the GreatThese Abuidite Princes of David that were now revolting were not of the all-Jewish Tobaidite or Onaidite Lineages but the Jewish-Babylonian Abuidite Lineage from the descendants of Prince Shazrezzar, the oldest son of Governor Zerubabbel by his Babylonian wife, Princess AmytisThrough this lineage that surrounded the family of Yehoshua (Jesus) began the roots of modern Zionism and the “idealism” of the young right-wing Nationalists called the “Settlers Movement” in the Nation of Israel todayIt is to Hezekiah the Zealot, Judas the Zealot and later Judas the Galilean that raised the banner of freedom not by Grecian democracy, nor imperial Hellenistic globalism, but a true “Nation under God” whose ideals of service were to the God of Israel. 


What is most interesting is that Sepphoris, the city that was destined to be the Theocratic capital of Judea in Galilee was only 7 kilometers, or less than 4 miles from the modern city of Nazareth today.  While Nazareth has never been identified on any ancient map, Roman or Jewish in the first century BCE or CE, it was in this region that Joseph the foster father of Jesus has been most identified and left the namesake to his adopted son, Jesus of Nazareth.


The histories reveal that Joseph, and his older sister, Miriam, and twin brothers, Ptolas and Cleopas, were all quickly taken and secreted in the “safe houses” of his extended family in Gamala, Sepphoris, or possibly the Essene hamlet of “Nazareth”.  This all came after Jesus’ grandfather, Jacob the Patriarch was executed by King Herod in the year of 23 BCE on the charges of sedition to the Herodian Nation of Judea.  By the time that Prince Joseph’s uncle, Hezekiah the Zealot, and his cousin, Judas the Zealot were executed and hanged (4 BCE), Prince Joseph, under the guidance of angelic messengers, was safely in the land of Egypt. They would later return to the land of their ancestors, with a new identity. Is it any wonder that Jesus the Nazarene (Yehoshua HaNotzri) was called Jesus of Nazareth!


The Revolt of Athronges the Shepherd in the Year of 4 BCE


Gamla SynagogueFollowing the executions of both Hezekiah the Zealot and his son, Judas the Zealot, the struggle of the Jewish resistance moved down towards the city of Jerusalem.  Athronges the Shepherd was a Prince of David from a more obscure lineage called the Pelatiahite Line. Like all other Davidian princes, they were affected by the persecutions and Herodian pogroms against the descendants of the House of David who were continuing to rise in rebellion against King Herod.


Stone Seats on the sides of the

Synagogue at the Fortress at Gamala


Right after the death of King Herod in 4 BCE, Simon V of Perea, the last of the officially approved lineage of Tobit the Twin (Tobaidite Lineage) took the crown of King Herod in the Palace of Herod in Jerusalem where he was living in “house arrest” placed the diadem on his head and raised the banner of revolt against the Herodian state. Simon V of Perea was soon killed by Herod’s military-general, Gratus, that same year.


Athronges the Shepherd arose as the next male-line heir for with the extinction of all the senior Meshullam male descendants of King David, with the death of Simon V of Perea, the senior lineage was now the Pelatiahite lineage of Davidian princes headed by Athronges who was called “The Shepherd”.


Later in 4 BCE, Athronges placed the diadem of Herod on his head and with his council proclaimed the right to the throne of King HerodThough comely in appearance, Athronges and his four brothers were tall, and known to be superior with the strength of their hands. With at least five different fighting forces which, they pressed hard against the Herodian and Roman forces, using guerilla tactics to quickly assault the various companies of soldiers in surprise raids. It took the combined forces of Archelaus, the son of Herod, Gratus the military general of the combined forces, and Ptolemy, the Roman general to finally kill Athronges in battle and round up four brothers. Surprisingly, all five sons, Theudas, Amram, Hanibas, Dinai, and Perisha, survived their father.  Three of the five sons, kept up the Jewish resistance. 


The second oldest son, Amran, had a son called Alexander the Zealot who died about 50 CEDinai’s son and grandson, Eleazar the Zealot and Moshe were killed or executed in 60 CE, while Perisha’s son, Tahinas “Asida” led groups of armed patriotic Jewish resistance forces until he was killed in 44 or 46 CE.


It was Theudas, the oldest son, who closely allied himself with his nephew, Jesus the Nazarene (Yehoshua HaNotzri), for Theudas, a leading elder with the Hebrew Nazarene Ecclesia, married into the family of Joseph the Carpenter for Joseph’s older sister, Miriam, was the wife of Theudas.  The early Nazarene researcher in southern France, Robert Killian of Monaco firmly believes that James the Just, the first Nasi (Prince of Israel) of the Jewish Nazarene Sanhedrin was the oldest son of Prince Theudas, the son of Pelatiahite Prince, Athronges the Shepherd, and Princess Miriam, the older sister of Prince Joseph the Carpenter.  


The Revolt of Judas the Galilean from Gamala in the Year of 6 CE


Synagogue Torah NicheThe “Zealots who were called the "anna'im" was the collective name for all the Jewish males who were zealous for the honor, reverence, and sanctity of the Torah (Law), the Sanctuary, and Prophetic Writings that encompassed the “Scriptures” for the New Testament authors.  Early in the Zealot’s cause, a vast majority of the peasants, and the Pharisees supported the cause of the redemption and the sanctity of the land.  This was especially true for the early followers of the rigid Torah interpretations by the disciples of Shammai the Great. Yet, the God of Israel did not want his people to shut up the gates to Jerusalem from the gentiles within the rest of the world.  They were to look for the Righteous Gentiles and bring them slowly into the sphere of influence of the Hebrew philosophical way of life. This is why to the rabbanim, the God of Israel after the destruction of the temple and Jerusalem proclaimed that the “word of God” had spoken that the Torah principles taught of Hillel the Great were to be the Torah for the future of Judaism.


Torah Niche in the Synagogue at the Fortress Gamala


The earlier revolts of 4 BCE by Simon V of Perea, Athronges the Shepherd, Hezekiah the Zealot and his son, Judas of Galilee called “The Zealot”, had now simmered to a slow death.  Then came Judas of Gamala, called The Galilean who Josephus proclaimed was the founder of the Zealots, rather than Hezekiah ben Guron, four decades prior.


It took a Roman “census” in the year of 6 CE, in the days of the Roman General Publius Quinctilius Varus under Roman imperial rule of Caesar Augustus, who earlier (4 BCE) had burned down the town of Sepphoris, and crucified 2000 Zealots under the revolt of Judas the Zealot of Galilee, that ignited the Jewish cause of the Davidians that led Josephus, trying to give a non-biased history for both the Romans and the Jews to write;


Flavius Josephus“And now Judea was full of robberies (zealots); and, as the several companies of the seditious lighted upon any one to head them, he was created a king immediately in order to do mischief to the public.  They were in some small measure indeed, and in small matters, hurtful to the Romans, but the murders they committed upon their own people lasted a long while.”


Another uncle of Prince Joseph the Carpenter was the younger brother of Jacob the Patriarch and Hezekiah the ZealotJudas of Gamala called “The Galilean” was best known for his violent resistance against the Romans, in their “righteous indignation” against the Roman census that was placed upon the land of JudeaIt all started in Galilee with an assault by the revolutionary minded Jewish resistance militia under the command of Judas the Zealot, the son of the older brother, Hezekiah the Zealot.  It was at the Roman armory and garrison located at Herod the King’s palace in Sepphoris that they stormed, overwhelmed the Roman forces, and emptied the military armaments warehouse of all its weapons.  It was truly a retaliation force against the heart of the Roman military because of the imposition of Roman taxation by Quirinius, the governor of what was known as the Iudaea Province about the year of 4 BCE.


Ten years later, in the aftermath of the death of King Herod and the dividing up of his kingdom, his son, the Ethnarch Herod-Archelaus of Judea was put upon the throne by his Roman benefactors.  The third brother of Jacob the Patriarch and Hizkiah the Zealot was Judas the Galilean from Gamala who was living in a nearby town of Gamala.  It was Judas of Gamala that raised a second rebellion and toppled the Ethnarch Herod- Archelaus from the throne of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea in the year of 6 CE revolt was harshly suppressed by the Roman Governor of Judea, Coponius, along with the Roman forces that again came down from Damascus under the command of Cyrenius (Publicus Sulpicius Quirinus), the governor of Syria in that same year (6 CE)King Herod-Archelaus was deposed as king by Augustus Caesar because of the innumerable complaints against his rule from citizens in Judea, Samaria, and the region of Idumea.  Together, all these regions were annexed at this time into the Roman Province of Judea.  This resistant movement of Judas of was specially noted by Flavius Josephus in his books, “The Antiquities of the Jews”, and “The Wars of the Jews”.

Coinage of Herod Archelaus (4 BCE to 6 CE) – Bronze Prutah – Left, Bunch of Grapes on Vine with Small Leaf on Left, Herod written in Greek above – Right, Tall Helmet with Crest and Cheek Straps viewed from the front, Caduceus Below, Inscription Below “Ethnarch” in Greek.


Flavius Josephus – “Yet there was one Judas a Gaulonite, of a city whose name was Gamala, who taking with him Sadduc, a Pharisee, became zealous to draw them to a revolt, who said that this taxation was no better than an introduction to slavery, and exhorted the nation to assert their liberty; as if they could procure them happiness and security for what they possessed, and an assured enjoyment of a still greater good, which was that of the honour and glory they would thereby acquire for magnanimity.  …But of the fourth sect of Jewish philosophy, Judas the Galilean was the author. These men agree in all other things with the Pharisaic notions; but they have an inviolable attachment to liberty; and they say that God is to be their only Ruler and Lord. They also do not value dying any kinds of deaths, nor indeed do they heed the deaths of their relations and friends, nor can any such fear make them call any man God and since this immovable resolution of theirs is well known to a great many…” (Josephus, Antiquities, XVIII, i, 1,2, page 376)


Flavius Josephus  - “And now Archelaus’ part of Judea was  reduced into a province, and Coponius, one of the equestrian order among the Romans, was sent as a procurator, having the power of (life and) death put into his hands by CaesarUnder his administration it was that a certain Galilean whose name was Judas, prevailed with his countrymen to revolt; and said they were cowards if they would endure to pay a tax to the Romans, and would, after God, submit to mortal men as their lords.  This man was a teacher of a peculiar sect of his own, and was not at all like the rest of those their leaders.” (Josephus, Wars, II, viii, 1, page 376)


Image:Ancient Galilee.jpgIn the spring of this same year (6 CE), when Jesus’ grandfather’s brother, Great Uncle Judas the Galilean from Gamala effectively toppled the government of the Ethnarch Herod-Archelaus of Galilee yet was later captured and executed by Roman governor of Syria, Cyrenius (Quirinus), the boy Yehoshua (Jesus) was heading to the Temple of Herod for his first bar mitzvoth Passover celebration about the age of 12-13 years of age (7 BCE to 6 CE)During that Spring Festival Celebration, the young teenaged youth, Yehoshua (Jesus) was invited to a private audience with the chief priests and elders of the Great Sanhedrin


Map of Galilee with Sepphoris, Cana, and Nazareth


At this same time, the Nasi or President of the Great Sanhedrin was Hillel the Great.  The newly inaugurated High Priest, in the year of 6 CE, was Ananias the Elder, the Patriarch of the future House of Hanan who would later meet Jesus with his son-in-law, now the current High Priest Caiphas in their Palace in Jerusalem when Yehoshua (Jesus) was interrogated after His arrest and before His illegal trial by a later Great Sanhedrin in the year 30 CE. This illegal trial by Torah law was possibly the last official act of the Nasi or President of the Great Sanhedrin, the Davidian Prince Shammai the Great before his death in the year of 30 CE.


It may take more research to link the motives and the inter-relationships of all the different players in the religious and political matrix that were swarming around the first century city of Jerusalem.  From every bit of evidence, the family of Jesus, the ancestors and descendants, were major players on every level of first century BCE and first century CE Jewish society.  The motivations of the apostate first and second Early Christian Roman Orthodox Church to hide and distort the dynamic relationship of the Jesus Family in Jewish society is not a part of this historical study, but the implications of this literal history without any spiritual contextualization are profound. Maybe this is why the Jewish apocalyptic “Testimony of Yehoshua (Jesus)” in the Book of Revelation boldly proclaims in apocalyptic imagery the truth about Babylon the Great who made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication”.


The sad reality and yet amazing reality is that modern Christianity that proudly accepts the Book of Revelation fails to accept that Revelation’s apocalyptic warning of Judgment is a “fire brand” aiming directly at them.  At the same time, modern Judaism that proudly rejects the Jewish apocalyptic Book of Revelation, the “Daniel” of the Brit Hadassah, the Second reNewed Testament, fails to accept that the central players of redemption and salvation, as prophesied by every prophet of the TaNaKh, the First “Old” Testament, are directed towards their redemption and restoration in the House of Judah (Jewish people) and their cousins, the House of Joseph and Ephraim (Lost House of Israel). 


The Two Cousins on Trial – Jesus or Barabbas?


There was not a more stark contrast to the different pathways that two 3rd cousins trod than that of Yehoshua ben Yosef (Jesus son of Joseph) and Bar Abbas (son of Abbas).  There on the podium or porch of the Governor’s Mansion overlooking the Antonia Fortress stood Jesus (Yehoshua), who after an illegal nighttime arrest, an illegal nighttime arraignment at the Mansion of the House of Ananus the Elder on the Hill called Zion, and an illegal nighttime conviction of death by the Sanhedrin, and now was taken to the Roman Procurator of Judea, Pontius Pilate on charges of sedition against Rome for “perverting the nation”, “forbidding to pay taxes to Caesar” and proclaiming that “He Himself is the Messiah” in direct challenge to the Caesar of Rome.  [Luke 12:1-3 (parts)]


The Trial of Jesus before Pilate - Ecce Homo, by Antonio Ciseri (1821-91)


Let us visit this encounter between the Roman Procurator of Judea, Pontius Pilate as it was recounted in the Gospel of Matthew according to the Primitive Hebrew Text by Shem-Tov.  Here was a 14th century Jewish Polemical treatise entitled “Even Bohan” that was written by Shem-Tob ben-Isaac ben-Shaprut, a Jewish physician from Tudela, Spain who lived in Tarazona in the province of Aragon between 1380 to 1400 CE. 


Shem-Tob’s Hebrew Gospel of Matthew“On the day of the honored feast of Passover it was their custom for the commander of the city to give to the people one of the prisoners whom they wished. Pilate had a prisoner who was almost crazy; his name was Barabbas. Taken in a case of murder he had placed him in the dungeon.  When they were gathered together Pilate said to them: ‘Which of these do you wish that I should release, Barabbas or Jesus who is called Messiah.’  This was because Pilate knew that due to hatred without cause he had been taken.  While he was sitting upon the throne his wife sent to him a messenger saying; “I implore you that in no matter should you speak a word against this righteous man (tzaddik) because in this night I have suffered many things in a vision because of him.’ 


The chief priests and the elders of the law assembled the people (that) they might ask for Barabbas and that Jesus might die.  Pilate answered them: “Which of them do you wish that we should release. They said BarabbasPilate said to them: ‘If so, what shall I do with Jesus who is called Messiah?’  All of them answered that he should be hung.’  Pilate said to them: ‘What evil had he done?’ Then they vigorously cried out: “Let them hang him, let them hang him, let then hang him.” 


Pilate, when he saw that he had no power of resistance and was unable to make any peace with them before a great dispute among the people might arise because of this, took water and washed his hands before the people and said: ‘I am innocent (of the blood). Be careful what you do.’  All the people answered and said: ‘His blood will be upon us and upon our’  Then he released Barabbas (to them), and delivered to them Jesus for beating and affliction that they might hang him.” 


A Torah Ark at the Temple Mount

Photo by Robert Mock


Barabbas was the oldest son of Abbas ben Judas who was known in history as Judas of Gamala. This was the Judas of Gamala who was known as The Galilean and raised up a messianic uprising of violent resistance against the Roman census during the year of 6 CE that was imposed upon the Jewish people by the Roman governor of Syria, Publius Sulpicuis Quirinius during the beginning of his rule between the years of 6 to 12 CEIt was Josephus that proclaimed that this Judas of Gamala was the official founder of the Zealots.  Yet, the fourth philosophy of the Zealots arose out of the Gamala Resistance Movement who sought to restore the sovereignty of Judah, the preservation of the Holy Temple of Jerusalem, even if it meant an international uprising against the global oppression of Rome, or eventually the assassination of those Jews who opposed complete revolt against global oppression.


Here we have one family, the family of the House of Matthan ben Levi of Gamala and two paths of Roman resistanceMatthan had three sons whose oldest son of each family had to make a choiceOne great grandson, Yehoshua ben Joseph (Jesus son of Joseph) was the grandson of the Yaakov (Jacob), the Patriarch of Jerusalem, and the great grandson of Matthan ben Eleazar (Matthan the son of Eleazar).  The Patriarch Jacob followed the path of passive resistance and lived a life with a more merciful attitude towards the Gentiles during the Nasi rule (30-20 BCE) of the Great Sanhedrin of Hillel the Great.   Yet, Jacob the Patriarch was eventually executed for sedition (23 CE) against Herod and Rome, the globalist master of King Herod. Joseph calledThe Carpenter” was the son of Jacob the Patriarch yet he grew up, after his father’s execution (23 CE) when he was six years old, in the heartland of the Jewish Resistant Movement at Gamala with his uncles and cousins


            Matthan ben Eleazar à

Yaakov ben Matthan (Jacob the son of Matthan), called thePatriarch of Jerusalem” (32-23 BCE) à

Yosef ben Yaakov (Joseph the son of Jacob), who was called “The Carpenter à 

Yehoshua ben Yosef (Jesus the “foster” son of Joseph) called “The Messiah”.


The next oldest son of Matthan ben Levi of Gamala, Hezekiah the Zealot moved from the Golan fortress of Gamala to the east of Galilee into the regions in the west of the lake called Kinneret (Sea of Galilee) near King Herod’s Palace, where the regional Roman military armory was located in the capital city of Galilee, the city of Sepphoris.  There, Joseph’s uncle, the brother to his father, Jacob the Patriarch of Jerusalem, who was called Hezekiah “The Zealot” began the overt political act of rebellion against Rome and plotted to set up a Jewish Theocratic State of Galilee in which its capital was to be at SepphorisHis son, Judas “The Zealot” completed his father’s military plans and sacked the Palace of Herod at Sepphoris, raided and took over the Roman armory at the fortress capital of Sepphoris, yet was killed within that same year (4 BCE) in his messianic military battles against the Romans. 


Two of his sons, were later crucified with 2000 other Zealot followers of his father, who believed in Hezekiah’s, vision for a Nation under God”.  The city of Sepphoris was burnt to the ground, 20,000 of the citizens of the city were slaughtered or sold into captivity, and the 2000 Zealots hung on Roman crosses that dotted the Galilean hillsides.  The revolt of Hezekiah the Zealot played out to its fullest extent when his great-great grandson, Simon V Bar-Kochba, started the Bar-Kochba rebellion in the year of 132 CE.   After this date, the Jewish people were totally exiled from the city of Jerusalem for centuries. 


            Matthan ben Eleazar à

Hizkiah ben Matthan (Hezekiah son of Matthan) of Gamala called The Zealot à

Yehudah ben Matthan (Judas son of Matthan) of Galilee called the The Zealot à

Jacob and Simon bens Yehudah (Jacob and Simon the sons of Judah), were executed on “trumped up charges” when they rebellion under the rule of Tiberius Julius Alexander in the year of 47 CE


The youngest son of Matthan ben Levi of Gamala, Judas of Gamala called “The Galilean” moved from the Golan fortress of Gamala to the east of Galilee.  He was living there in the year of 6 BCE when he revolted against the Roman census during the year of 6 CE that was imposed by the world government of Rome in order to install a universal taxation upon the Jewish people by the Roman governor of Syria, Publius Sulpicuis QuiriniusHe was executed by Rome in the year of 6 CE.  His son, Abbas ben Yehudah (Abbas son of Judas) was spared the fate of his father, Judas of Gamala


Abbas’ son continued in the underground Jewish Resistance Movement that progressively degenerated from their noble goals to wanton murder of Romans and Jews alike.  They not only killed Romans in official uprisings but began the slow and decaying process of destroying their own culture and the people within.  The New King James Version calls Barabbas a notorious prisoner who was wanted for murder.  The Hebrew Matthews text interprets the text that Barabbas was a prisoner that was almost crazy”. There comes a time when that which you oppose, you become almost like or the cloned image of that which you hate.   During this era, the Jewish state degenerated into what the rabbanim called the 49th degree of Tuma, or state of degeneration. So it will at the time of the end.


            Matthan ben Eleazar à

                        Judas of Gamala called The Galilean à

                                    Abbas ben Judas of Galilee à

“BarAbbas” ben Abbas (BarAbbas the son of Abbas) who was called Barabbas who was saved from a Roman execution in substitution for Jesus the Nazarene called The Messiah”, who was then spared a Roman execution.   Jesus instead was pronounced “blameless” by Roman law yet was given to the Jewish hierarchy ruled by the House of Hanan (Ananias the Elder and his family of priests) and the Pharisee Zealot supporters of Shammai the Great (Beit Shammai) to be executed the Torah halakhic law of Shammai by “hanging on a tree”. 


The Orthodox Jewish Men in Prayer and Meditation at the Western Wailing Wall

Photo by Robert Mock


One Torah – Two Pathways


In the days of Yehoshua HaMaschiach (Jesus the Messiah) there was one Torah but two halakhic pathways of how to live the life of Torah; the path of Beit Hillel, lived by the Pharisee disciples of Hillel the Great, and the path of Beit Shammai, lived by the Pharisee disciples of Shammai the GreatBoth of these pathways were discussed in detail by BibleSearchers in the Summer of 2006 in the series of articles called “The Divine Mission to Bring the “Good News” to the Gentiles by the Seven Noahide Laws” beginning with the article, Jesus the Pharisee from the School of (Beit) Hillel in the Eyes of the Talmudic Scholar, Rabbi Jacob Emden”.


The large number of the disciples of Hillel the Great and his Av Beis Din (vice-president of the Sanhedrin) Menahem the Essene fled Jerusalem about the year of 20 BCE.  This was the time when Shammai the Great, who earlier took control of the Jerusalem Patriarchate in the year of 32 BCE.   It was in the year of 41 BCE, that Herod the Great usurped the Patriarchate of Jerusalem and nominated his brother, Joseph IV as the Patriarch. Joseph IV was not a Prince of the House of David, yet he ruled between the years of 41 to 38 BCE.  Then Joseph’s son, King Herod’s nephew, Joseph V ruled between the years of 38 – 32 BCE when he died childless. In that year, Prince Shammai led a revolt to gain control of the Jerusalem Patriarchate as the leading prince of the authorized Tobaite or Onaidite Davidian Lineages in the year of 32 BCE.    


Now, twelve years later, Shammai the Great took control of the Pharisees in Jerusalem in the year of 20 BCE. This is the same Prince of David, Shammai, who was ousted from the Patriarchate of Jerusalem by King Herod the Great in the year of 32 BCE, replaced Jacob ben Matthan, the father of Prince Joseph the Carpenter.   In this strategic move, King Herod divided the Davidian princes by eliminating the authorized lineages with the former “bastard” Davidian Abiudite Lineage of Zerubabbel’s descendants.


Hillel the Great remained in Jerusalem as the Nasi of the Great Sanhedrin from the years between 30 BCE to 10 CE.  He was followed by his son, Simeon the Nasi, and later Gamaliel the Great, his grandson.  They in fact were “token” Jewish Davidian Nasi leaders as the Great Sanhedrin remained in the defacto control by Shammai the Great until he died in the year of 30 BCE,  the year of the death of Yehoshua (Jesus) as the “accursed one” by “hanging on the tree” of executionThis may have been Shammai the Great’s last official act, to officiate as the Beis Av Din (vice-president) of the Great Sanhedrin at the trial of Jesus the Messiah (Yehoshua HaMaschiach).  The disciples of Beit Shammai continued to control the Pharisees until the destruction of the Jerusalem in the year of 70 CE.  The House of Hillel continued to control the office of the Nasi of the Sanhedrin for the next 400 years.


As BibleSearchers wrote under the subtitle, The Ascendancy of the School of Shammai over the Pharisees;


BibleSearchers Reflections - At the same time that Yahshua ben Yosef (Jesus son of Joseph) was introducing a “New Covenant” called the Brit Hadassah (New Testament) with His disciples, He was also introducing to them the foundation of the Damascus “New Covenant” that was begun almost fifty years prior with the disciples of Hillel and Menahem the Essene.  About this same time, there came a prophecy that the School of Shammai (Beit Shammai) would come to its end at the time of the destruction of the temple of Jerusalem(Ibid 117) 


Not only that, the Jewish rabbinate after the exile from Jerusalem came to believe if the opinions of Shammai did not agree with the opinions of Hillel that they would be considered null and void as seen in the following quote. (Ibid 117)


Berakhot 36B - The opinion of Bet Shammai when it conflicts with that of Bet Hillel is no Mishnah.” 


The later opinion of the rulings of the School of Shammai came to such a low opinion that according to Berakhot 11A, it states that “he, who observes the teachings of Bet Shammai, deserves death.”


After the destruction of the Temple of Herod in the year of 70 CE, the “voice of the Lord” was heard by the chief rabbanim that the “words of Hillel” would become the respected voice of Judaism in its teachings. The principles of Torah observance, as taught by Hillel the Great, would become the standard of Jewish halakhah, or what we call the practical way of living the life of Torah.  The “spirit nor the teachings” of Shammai were to remain as part of Judaism. The intent was that the influence of Shammai upon Jewish life would disappear.


And that it did, but as anti-Semitism continues to swell around the world, the anti-goyim (anti-gentile) attitude of Shammai is beginning to resurrect itself.  In the most negative of ways, it is forming barriers that prevent assimilated Jews living in the rest of the world from returning to their own spiritual home.  In a broader context, it failed to provide a pathway for the assimilation of gentiles who wish to become a part of the House of Israel (Jacob), especially those who have respect and “faith” in the messianic mission of the Jewish messiah, Yehoshua HaMaschiach (Jesus the Messiah). 


It was the thesis of Rabbi Isaac Luria that the School of Shammai that were the “Pharisees” in power in first century Judaism could have been a shadow pictureof how the Torah will be observed in the future era.  It is the opinion of BibleSearchers that suggest that the theological idealism of the School of Shammai will once again return as the leading voice of Torah?  As such, we might want to reconsider the philosophical ideology of the School of Shammai without their negative opinion of associating with the gentiles around the world. 


The Site where the Jewish People Plan to Build the Third Temple to the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob

Photo by Robert Mock


The disciples of the School of Shammai were truly brilliant on their legal understanding on how to live a life of Torah.  The problem was, they did not practice what they preached.  Neither did they know how to put their concepts of Torah living into a private life so that Sovereign will of the Almighty One of Israel will allow His Torah to absorb the whole worldIt appears that it was not the will of the Almighty that His Torah be isolated to a piece of property that is but a “dot” on the face of the entire globe.


In the world to come, according to the Jewish perspective of the future, the Jews will no longer have to fear a world that hates their very existence.  There will no longer be any imperial forces that will seek to destroy the Torah culture that is lived by only a remnant of the ancient Hebrews.  As we look into the future, we will see the fulfillment of Ezekiel’s vision (Ezekiel 37:15-28) that depicts the joining of the stick “for Judah and for the children of Israel” with the stickfor Joseph, the stick of Ephraim, and for all the house of Israel” will have been completed.   


Jesus the Messiah first came to this planet as the Maschiach ben Yosef (Messiah son of Joseph)who would be the suffering servant.  As our “doormat”, He would give even the gentiles an entrance to the kingdom that is yet to come.  He lived his life in fulfillment of what He preached in order to demonstrate that He was the “Torah in the Flesh who lived His life in fulfillment of every aspect of Torah living.  He came as a Hasid who lived His life above the “letter of the law” much akin to the life of the disciples of Hillel and Menahem the Essene who fled to Damascus and rose from the matrix of 1st century Jewish life as the Essenes in the wilderness. Yet, Yehoshua (Jesus) as the “Messiah son of Joseph” (Maschiach ben Yosef) revealed the left hand of the transforming love and mercy of His Father in heaven.


Matthew 3:16-17“For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life. For God did not send His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be saved.” 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yet when Yehoshua (Jesus) returns as the Messiah, the son of David (Maschiach ben Dovid), He will come to bring judgment upon this earth.  He will redeem His people, and restore His earth as a place where the kingdom of God” (halakhah as the way of Torah) can be lived to its full power of transforming glory.  


There may soon come the day of the Messiah when David, son of David will rule and the Messiah of Israel will return to claim His ownMay we suggest that in that millennial “Day of the Lord” the “kingdom of God” will be fully instituted with an era of Torah Enlightenment that will spread over the entire earth?


Isaiah 2:2-5Now it shall come to pass in the later days, that the mountain of the Lord’s house shall be established on the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills; and all nations shall flow to it.


Many people shall come and say, Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob; He will teach us His ways, and we shall walk in His paths.’ 


For out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the Word of the Lord from Jerusalem.  He shall judge between the nations, and rebuke many people; They shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks; nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war anymore.  O house of Jacob, come and let us walk in the light of the Lord.”


In the days of Jesus, the Messiah son of Joseph (Maschiach ben Yosef), the left hand of the God of Israel was raised out over the land of Judea and Galilee. The broken hearts were healed, the cripples rose up and walked, vision was given back to the blind, and the power of death was broken to the young and old alike. Those Jewish freedom fighters that rose up in defense of Jerusalem and the Temple of the Lord against the Herodian and the Romans found their lives snuffed out one by one.  Had the God of Israel abandoned their dreams and aspirations for a land that flowed with milk and honey and left them to die on crosses upon the hillsides of Galilee? 


Yet the God of Israel sent His Son so that the Almighty One of Israel could stretch out His left hand of mercy and love to a nation that had descended into self destruction.  While most of His ancestral family were executed by the Romans, the Herodians, and the Maccabees, Yehoshua was executed by the hands of the Sadducee Hierarchy of Temple Priests of the House of Hanan, where the High Priests Ananias the Elder and his son-in-law, Joseph Caiphas were in collusion with the Pharisee disciples of Beit Shammai.  The time of God’s “appointed hour” of redemption would be left for a future era, after the time when the “fullness of the Gentiles” had come and then “all Israel would be saved”. 


At the end of the age, the Jewish prophecy of the future portrays that the God of Israel will resend His Son, this time reaching out with His right hand of judgment.   


Revelation 19:11-16 - “Now I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse.  And  He who sat on him was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness He judges and makes war.  His eyes were like a flame of Fire, and on His head were many crownsHe had a name written that no one knew except Himself.  He was clothed with a robe dipped in blood, and His name is called The Word of God.  And the armies in heaven, clothed in fine linen, white and clean, followed Him on white horses.  Now out of His mouth goes a sharp sword, that with it He should strike the nations.  And He Himself will rule them with a rod of iron.   He Himself treads the winepress of fierceness and wrath of Almighty God...  And He has on His robe and on His thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS and LORD OF LORDS.”


The prophecy of the “Revelation of Jesus” was not written by a Christian prophet, but was written by the Jewish Apostle of Yehoshua (Jesus) who was called Yohannes (John) the “son of Thunder”.  Who was this aging prophet, who was once called the “Beloved” by his Master Rabbi Yehoshua from amongst His disciples of twelveYet this prophecy about the “rule of justice” does not describe an ethereal other-worldly existence such as living in another dimension on another planetary sphere. The prophets are clear, there will be an era of the Messiah that will occur during the Great Day of the Lord, for the day of the Lord is a thousand human years of existence.


The City of David – BiblePlaces


Isaiah 11:3-5 - “He will not judge by what He sees with His eyes, or decide by what He hears with his ears; but with righteousness He will judge the needy, with justice He will give decisions for the poor of the earth.  He will strike the earth with the rod of His mouth; with the breath of His lips He will slay the wicked.  Righteousness will be His belt and faithfulness the sash around His waist.”


The facts are revealed that the Messiah son of David will actuate the principles of governance that were spoken by Zachariah the Prophet near the time of the completion of the Temple of Zerubabbel in the days of the governing rule of Prince Zerubabbel. 


Zechariah 8:16-17“These are the things you shall do; speak each man the truth to his neighbor; give judgment in your gates for truth, justice, and peace; ‘Let none of you think evil in your heart against your neighbor; and do not love a false oath. For all these are things that I hate,’ says the Lord.”


The question we ask, was the pathway of peace, demonstrated by the life of Jesus (Yehoshua) as He lived the life of an “Hasid” revealing the “kingdom of God” in His ministry on earth in direct opposition to the pathway of war and justice that was portrayed in the lives of His uncles and cousins, Hezekiah the Zealot, Judas the Zealot of Galilee, and Judas of Gamala called The Galilean”. They appeared to be in direct opposition to each other as the disciples of Hillel appeared to be in direct opposition to the disciples of Shammai. 


What if these two roles reverse at the time of the end?  May we suggest that the pathway of the Zealots that led the Roman Province of Judea eventually to full revolt that ended in a nineteen hundred year exile will become the pathway of redemption for “all Israel” at the time of the end?  Will the path of revolt of the modern Jewish Zealots as the Zionists of Israel (not the Labor Zionists of Sharon and Peres) will be the Jewish final response to the call of their God, the Lord of hosts, when He with them will drive out all the imperial globalist oppressors from the Land of Israel? 


Within the prophecy of Zechariah by the Lord of Hosts against Syria, Hezbollah in Lebanon, and Hamas in Gaza we read;


Zechariah 9:9, 12-16 (parts)“Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! Shout, O daughter of Jerusalem!  Behold your king is coming to you; He is just and having salvationReturn to the stronghold, you prisoners of hope. Even today I declare that I will restore double to you. For I have bent Judah, My bow, fitted the bow of Ephraim, and raised up your sons, O Zion, against your sons, O Greece, and made you like the sword of a mighty man.’  Then the Lord will be seen over them, and His arrow will go forth like lighting…The Lord God will blow the trumpet, and go with the whirlwinds from the south. The Lord of hosts will defend them….The Lord their God will save them in that day, as the flock of his people. For they shall be like the jewels of a crown…” 


In the prophecies of Obadiah, we read of the fate of Edom, Philistia, the fields of Ephraim and the fields of Samaria that were symbolized by many in the days of Yehoshua (Jesus) as the globalists Rome, and Rome’s “Quartet’s”  promised homeland for the Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank.


Obadiah 17-18“But on Mount Zion there shall be deliverance, and there shall be holiness; the house of Jacob shall possess their possessions, the house of Jacob shall be a fire, and the house of Joseph a flame; but the house of Esau shall be stubble, they shall kindle them and devour them, and no survivor shall remain of the house of Esau.’ For the Lord has spoken. The South (Negev) shall possess the mountains of Esau (Saudi), and the Lowlands shall possess Philistia (Gaza). They shall possess the fields of Ephraim, and the fields of Samaria (West Bank). Benjamin shall possess Gilead (Syria).”


What about the soon coming Gog-Magog War or the Final War of Armageddon, when the nations of the world “lay siege to Jerusalem?”


Zechariah 12:5- “Behold I will make Jerusalem a cup of drunkenness to all the surrounding peoples, when they lay siege against Judah and Jerusalem. And it shall happen in that day that I will make Jerusalem a very heavy stone for all peoples; all who would heave it away will surely be cut in pieces, though all nations of the earth are gathered against it.  …I will open my Eyes on the house of Judah…and the governors of Judah shall say in their heart, ‘The inhabitants of Jerusalem are my strength in the Lord of hosts, their God.  In that day I will make the governors of Judah like a fire pan in the woodpile, and like a fiery torch in the sheaves; they shall devour all the surrounding peoples on the right hand and on the left, but Jerusalem shall be inhabited again in her own place – Jerusalem.”


In the days of Rabbi Yehoshua, the smitten and the forsaken One, was brought to the temple of the Lord, and for three days was watched observed and interrogated as He gave a visible demonstration on how to live a life of Torah living.  Here on the steps of the temple He revealed what the life in the future “kingdom of God” would be like.  That that day, the Jews, with the return of their Lost Tribal brothers of the House of Israel called Ephraim or Joseph, will reunite.  A Torah Renaissance will radiate over this planet earth for the Day of the Lord that will last for a thousand years. Here in the court of the temple, Rabbi Yehoshua portrayed this future era when the foundation of social, political, and religious order will be founded on the principles of living a life of Torah observance.


As the Prophet Joel succinctly stated;


Joel 2:31-32 – “The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the coming of the great and awesome day of the Lord. And it shall come to pass that whoever calls on the name of the Lord shall be saved. ‘For in Mount Zion and in Jerusalem there shall be deliverance’, as the Lord has said, ‘among the remnant whom the Lord calls.’” 


And we return to the prophetic insight of Zechariah the Prophet, who as a young man, was a member of a select priestly commando unit who secreted the treasures of King Solomon that were in the Temple of Solomon to a safe haven that will preserve the sanctuary of the covenant  for the day when David, son of David, returns to claim them for his own people.


Zechariah 13:8-9“And it shall come to pass in all the land,’ says the Lord, ‘that two-thirds in it shall be cut off and die, but one-third shall be left in it: I will bring the one-third through the fire, will refine them as silver is refined, and test them as gold is tested.  They will call on My name, and I will answer them. I will say, ‘This is My people’; and each one will say, ‘The Lord is my  God.’


Maybe we will see that when the era of the Messiah arrives, the “spirit of Hillel” will be blended with the “Torah understanding of Shammai”.  Out of this symbiosis and synthesis, the doors of Torah observance will be opened to the whole world with an understanding that all men of all races may open up their hearts with love and adoration to the Holy One of Israel.  With the fading of the anti-goyim (anti-gentile) attitude of Shammai Judaism coupled with the “love for all mankind” by the hasids of Hillel, and supported with the superb intellectual understanding of Torah by the Shammaites, the Golden Era of Torah Enlightenment will finally have its day to bless all the world with presence of the “Only Begotten Son of the Father in Heaven”.   This will allow the minds of all men to observe directly the glory of the Almighty One of Israel.   May that “Day of the Lord” come soon!





Note – The genealogies and historical overlays of the family of Jesus are a project of continuing research.  For any researchers with additional historical insight and genealogical information are welcome to contact any of the following researchers.

David Davidian Genealogy

Robert – Biblical History

Robert Killian - Biblical Chronology


Go to Book Two –

Chapter One 

The Maccabees and the Abomination of Desolation



In the Years Surrounding the Abomination of Desolation

The Heavenly Expulsion of Heliodorus from Confiscating the Temple Treasuries

The Heliodorus Stele and the Abomination of Desolation

The Lineage of the House of Zadok

The Jewish Priest-Kings of the Hasmoneans

The Lineage of the Hasmonean (Maccabee) Rulers

The Rise of the Hasmonean Jewish State

The First Hasmonean Civil War

The Davidian Challenge to the Rule of the Maccabees

Judah ben Simon II and Jesus bar Panther

Lineages of Davidian Rivals, Jesus Bar-Panthera and Judah III ben Simon II

The Second Jewish Civil War-Rise of Rome (Edom) and Herodians (Idumeans)

The Arrival of the Roman Pompey the Great (63 BCE)

The Ascendency of the Idumeans (47 BCE) – Antipater and Herod

Herod the Great

The Marriages and Heirs of King Herod the Great

The High Priest Boethus and the Return of the Zadokian High Priests

The Exiled  Zadokian Ancestors of High Priest Boethus

Husbands of Princess Cleopatra VIII of Jerusalem

Fading Years of the All-Jewish Lineages of the Hasmoneans and Princes of King David

The Messiah as a Part of God’s Divine Will



The Lineage of the House of Zadok

The Lineage of the Hasmonean (Maccabee) Rulers

Lineages of Davidian Rivals, Jesus Bar-Panthera and Judah III ben Simon II

The Marriages and Heirs of King Herod the Great

The Exiled Zadokian Ancestors of High Priest Boethus

Husbands of Princess Cleopatra VIII of Jerusalem


Return to Beginning 


Book One

The Ancestors of Jesus in First and Second Century Judea BCE


Go to Chapter One –

The Royal Davidian, Maccabee, and Levitical Ancestors of Jesus (Yehoshua)


Go to Chapter Two –

The Political and Royal Heritage of Miriam, the Chosen Princess, as the Mother of the Jewish Messiah


Go to Chapter Three –

The Religious Heritage of Miriam, the Chosen Princess, as the Granddaughter of a High Priest


Go to Chapter Four –

The Jewish Temples in Egypt and the Zadokian High Priest Influence of the Ancestors of Jesus


Go to Chapter Five –

‘Out of Egypt, I will Bring My Son’ - The Family of Prince Joseph


Go to Chapter Six –

The Davidian Princes in the Days of Herod the Great


Go to Chapter Seven –

The Legacy of the Jewish Freedom Fighters in the Ancestors of Jesus


Book Two

The History of the Jews surrounding the Princes of David


Go to Chapter One –

The Maccabees and the Abomination of Desolation


Go to Chapter Two –

The Fulfillment of the Covenant of King David and Solomon by King Josiah and the Prophet Jeremiah


Go to Chapter Three –

Princess Tamar - the Dynastic Merging of the Lineages of Solomon and Nathan


Book Three

“The Princes of David from Zerubabbel to the Messiah”


Go to Chapter One –

A New Beginning The Princes of Israel and Ezra the Scribe


Go to Chapter Two –

Zerubabbel, the Prince of Israel and the Patriarch of the Jews


Go to Chapter Three –

The Governors of Judea from the Persian to the Herodian Eras


Go to Chapter Four –

The Messiah, the son of David




Exegenesis Biblical Event Chronology

by Robert Killian of Monaco



Bibliography for Davidic Dynasty


Israel's Davidic Dynasty

by David Hughes

The British Chronicles




The British Chronicles

by David Hughes





by David Hughes


This Page,,

Is updated whenever a New Article is Posted to the Net
Note: Some of the hyperlinks for some reason don't work, thus,

it may be necessary to copy & paste some of the web addresses


1.    Five descent-lines from Roman Emperors to British Kings

                                    or mirror site


2.    Ancestors & descendants of Britain's King Arthur, & the Anwyl Family

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3.    Israel: From Moses, its first judge, to [H]Oshea, its last king

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4.    Israel's Davidic Dynasty

                                    or mirror site


5.    Descent from Christianity's Holy Family to Britain's Royal Family: the Jesus Dynasty

                                    or mirror site                                                                      


6.    The Grail-Kings

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7.    Five Descent-Lines from Israeli Royalty to British Royalty

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8.    Old British Royal House

                                    or mirror site


9.    Genealogy of the Lougher Family: male-line descendants of Britain's Iron Age Kings

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10.  The Jacobites: The Stuart King James II & His Heirs

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11.  Kings & Princes of Wales

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12.  Kings of Scotland

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13.  Kings of Ulster: independent Irish kingdom

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14.  Kings of Ireland

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15.  The Picts


16.  Early Frankish kings & the Merovingians

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17.  Some descent-lines from Africa to Europe

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18.  Some descent-lines from Arabic Royalty to European Royalty

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19.  Some descent-lines from Asia to Europe

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20.  Ancestors & descendants of Central America's Aztec Emperors

                                    or mirror site


21.  Ancestors & descendants of South America's Inca Emperors

                                    or mirror site


22.  Egyptian Pharaohs

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23.  Descent-line from Ancient Egypt to Modern Britain

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24.  Descent-line from Ancient Greece to Modern Greece

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25.  Ancient Sumeria

                                    or mirror site


26.  The Babylonian Emperors

                                    or mirror site


27.  The Assyrian Kings

                                    or mirror site


28.  The Balthae Dynasty: Gothic Kings

                                    or mirror site


29.  Lombard Kings

                                    or mirror site


30.  Male-line ancestry of the Plantagenets of England & the Capetians of France

                                    or mirror site


31.  Early Danish kings

                                    or mirror site


32.  Cerdic of Wessex

                                    or mirror site


33.  The "Beli Mawr Pedigree"

                                    or mirror site


34.  The "Aedd Mawr Pedigree"

                                    or mirror site


35.  The "Beli & Anne Pedigree"

                                    or mirror site


36.  Heirs-Male of the Old British Royal House


37.  Story of the First Christmas

                                    or mirror site


38.  Jesus & His Passion
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39.  Christianity

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40.  Atlantis: the "Lost Continent"

                                    or mirror site


41.  Who was Geoffrey of Monmouth's Brutus?

                                    or mirror site


42.  The Mamikonids [genealogy]

                                    or mirror site


43.  Complete list of British Monarchs

                                    or mirror site


44.  The Habsburg Dynasty's origin

                                    or mirror site


45.  Carolingian Dynasty

                                    or mirror site


46.  Early Kings & later Dukes of Brittany, now the French province of Bretagne

                                    or mirror site


47.  Tamar-Tephi [&, a Jewish kingdom in Ancient Ireland]

                                    or mirror site


48.  House of Dracula

                                    or mirror site


49.  Various Royal Families which have Inherited England's throne

                                    or mirror site


50.  Descent of Emperors of India to Kings of Britain

                                    or mirror site


51.  Descent-line from Turkish Khans to British Kings

                                    or mirror site


52.  Descent of Chinese Empress Wu to Queen Elizabeth II of Britain, etc

                                    or mirror site


53.  Regnal-list & Genealogy of the Indo-Greek Kings of Bactria

                                    or mirror site


54.  Descent from Russian Royalty to British Royalty

or mirror site


55.  The Maccabee Dynasty, House of Judas Maccabeus

                                    or mirror site


56.  The Herodians, House of Herod The Great

                                    or mirror site


57.  The Aaronic High-Priests of Israel & Judah/Judea

                                    or mirror site


58.  Kings of Pontus, list & genealogy

                                    or mirror site


59.  Kings of Thrace, genealogy

                                    or mirror site


60.  Kings of Bosphore, now Ukraine

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61.  Tamerlane & the Tartars

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David Hughes,,

Genealogical charts available upon request; Comments Welcome
See Table of Contents at
or mirror site


Message from BibleSearchers


BibleSearchers scans the world for information that has relevance on the time of the end.  It is our prayer that this will allow the believers in the Almighty One of Israel to “watch and be ready”.  Our readiness has nothing to do trying to halt the progression of evil on our planet earth.  In our readiness, we seek to be prepared for the coming of the Messiah of Israel so that goodness and evil will be manifested in its fullest.  Our preparation is a pathway of spiritual readiness for a world of peace.  Our defender is the Lord of hosts. The time of the end suggests that the Eternal One of Israel’s intent is to close out this chapter of earth’s history so that the perpetrators of evil, those that seek power, greed and control, will be eliminated from this planet earth.  The wars of the heavens are being played out on this planet earth and humans will live through it to testify of the might, power, justice and the love of the God of Israel.  In a world of corruption and disinformation, we cannot always know what the historical truth is and who is promoting evil or mis-information.  We cannot guarantee our sources but we will always seek to portray trends that can be validated in the Torah and the testimony of the prophets of the Old and the New Testament.



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