The ancients no doubt had magnificent technology in that fact that they built wonderful buildings of dimensions that marvel modern engineers. Since the Israelites had a close affinity to the Egyptians, their near neighbors, it is not unreasonable that they shared similar technological advanced in their societies. Credit is given to research done by Petrie, Dunn and Francis and recorded in and article called, Ancient Egyptian Stone Technology.
The technology the Israelites left behind in Egypt was some of the best in the ancient world. It is this author’s opinion that the Exodus of Moses (Moshe) was parallel with the end of the Old Kingdom of Egypt and that they had knowledge of the stone making technology of that era. This included circular saws, lathes or machines that rotate, and tube drilling.
In the Egyptian Museum in Cairo
this beautiful stone vase from Saqqara and the Step Pyramid, in which some
scholars identify its builder to be Imhotep, known in scripture as Joseph, the Vizier
of Egypt. At the base the tool marks of a lathe is seen. It was the famed
Egyptian archeologist, Petrie, who stated that "...the lathe
appears to have been as familiar an instrument in the fourth dynasty, as it is
in the modern workshops."
"These tubular drills vary in thickness from 1/4 inch to 5 inches in diameter, and from 1/30 to 1/5 inch thick. The smallest hole yet found in granite is 2 inch diameter."
This piece of carved design in granite in the Cairo Museum depicts spiral grooves with regular depth and spacing that in the mind of Petrie could only be done by “jeweled points” set in a bronze tube drill.
Even in this era five hundred years before the building of Solomon’s Temple saw marks have been found visible in the basalt pavement to the east of the Great Pyramid in Egypt. Here a saw was used to cut hard stone to form a level planes. The edges of the cut is crisp with parallel lines of a stonecutter with a remarkable steady hand.
The basalt was placed on top of the tura limestone of local origin that had been cut and fitted on the bedrock. Then the basalt was given a level cut forming a hard and enduring pavement around the magnificent edifice for the king.
In his book, “The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh”, the classic by Petrie, he records his finding in 1880-1881 in Chapter VIII entitled "Mechanical Methods
"The typical method of working hard stones - such as granite, diorite, basalt, etc. - was by means of bronze tools; these were set with cutting points, far harder than the quartz which was operated on. The material of these cutting points is yet undetermined; but only five substances are possible - beryl, topaz, chrysoberyl, corundum or sapphire, and diamond. The character of the work would certainly seem to point to diamond as being the cutting jewel; and only the considerations of its rarity in general,...interfere with this conclusion." …
"That the Egyptians were acquainted with a cutting jewel far harder than quartz, and that they used this jewel as a sharp pointed graver, is put beyond doubt by the diorite bowls with inscriptions of the fourth dynasty, of which I found fragments at Gizeh; as well as the scratches on polished granite of Ptolemaic age at San. The hieroglyphs are incised, with a very free-cutting point; they are not scraped or ground out, but are ploughed
through the diorite, with rough edges to the line. As the lines are only 1/150 inch wide (the figures being about .2 long), it is evidence that the cutting point must have been much harder than quartz; and tough enough not to splinter when so fine an edge was being employed, probably only 1/200 inch wide. Parallel lines are graved only 1/30 inch apart from centre to centre."
"We therefore need have no hesitation in allowing that the graving out of lines in hard stones by jewel points, was a well known art. And when we find on the surfaces of the saw-cuts in diorite, grooves as deep as 1/100 inch, it appears far more likely that such were produced by fixed jewel points in the saw, than by the first king of the
Second dynasty - Saqqara any fortuitous rubbing about of a loose powder. And when, further, it is seen that these deep grooves are almost always regular and uniform in depth, and equidistant, their production by the successive cuts of the jewel teeth of a saw appears to be beyond question..."
"That the blades of the saw were of bronze, we know from the green staining on the sides of the saw cuts, and on grains of sand left in a saw cut. The forms of the tools were straight saws, circular saws, tubular drills, and lathes. The straight saws varied from .03 to .2 inch thick, according to the work; the largest were 8 feet or more in length..." "...No. 6, a slice of diorite bearing equidistant and regular grooves of circular arcs, parallel to one another; these grooves have been nearly polished out by cross grinding, but are still visible. The only feasible explanation of this piece is that it was produced by a circular saw."
The Palace Complex of Solomon
Now that we have a little understanding of the potential of technological tools that could be used in the building of the House of the Lord, first let us look at another construction project that Solomon was also other buildings with probably the same artisans and contractors. This complex of government buildings included the House of the Forest of Lebanon, the Hall of Pillars and the Hall of Judgment.
The House of the Forest of Lebanon served as the treasury of the United Kingdom. Here was the repository for the following treasures.
1 Kings 10:16-17 - “And King Solomon made two hundred large shields of hammered gold; six hundred shekels of gold went into each shield. He also made three hundred shields of hammered gold; three minas of gold went into each shield. The king put them in the House of the Forest of Lebanon….”
“All King Solomon’s drinking vessels were gold, and all the vessels of the House of the Forest of Lebanon were pure gold. Not one was silver, for this was accounted as nothing in the days of Solomon.”
Also within this grand lodge, the House of the Forest of Lebanon, it appeared that that it was also used as a banquet house for dignitaries from around the world. Within this hall was recorded a large inventory of drinking vessels plus other vessels which no doubt were to be used for State Banquets. They were all made of a special kind of red gold, which was reserved for these vessels, the vessels in the house of Solomon, the interior lining of the Holy Place of the Temple plus the exterior and the interior lining of the Holy of Holiest where the Ark of the Covenant rested.
1 Kings 10:21 - “All King Solomon’s drinking vessels were gold, and all the vessels of the House of the Forest of Lebanon were pure gold (red gold). Not one was silver, for this was accounted as nothing in the days of Solomon.”
Also as part of the palace complex of Solomon were the administrative complex called the Hall of Pillars.
I Kings 7:6 - “He also made the Hall of Pillars: its length was fifty cubits, and its width thirty cubits, and in front of them was a portico with pillars, and a canopy was in front of them.”
This Hall of Pillars appeared to be attached to the Hall of Judgment which was the seat of judgment for the United Kingdom. Here was the Throne Room with the most famous throne mentioned in antiquity.
I Kings 7:77 - “Then he made a hall for the throne, the Hall of Judgment, where he might judge; and it was paneled with cedar from floor to ceiling.”
I Kings 10:18 - “Moreover the king made a great throne of ivory, and overlaid it with pure gold. The throne had six steps, and the top of the throne was round at the back; there were armrests on either side of the place of the seat, and two lions stood beside the armrests. Twelve lions stood there, one on each side of the six steps; nothing like this had been made for any other kingdom.
The reason scholars consider the House of the Forest of Lebanon to be the treasury was the fact that these large shields of hammered gold were actually stored here. Well what was their functional purpose. The first implication is that a shield was actually a military shield used by warriors. It is true that gold shields, used for ceremonial purposes, have been found in ancient archeological deposits but it is not actually states that these were military shields.
Later after the death of Solomon, it states that Shisak, the Pharaoh of Egypt invaded Jerusalem in the reign of King Rehoboam and the booty he carried back to Egypt was described.
1 Kings 14:25-28 - “ It happened in the fifth year of King Rehoboam that Shisak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem. And he took away the treasures of the house of the Lord and the treasures of the king’s house; he took away everything. He also took away all the gold shields which Solomon had made.
Then King Rehoboam made bronze shields in their place, and committed them to the hands of the captains of the guard, who guarded the doorway of the king’s house. And whenever the king entered the house of the Lord, the guards carried them then brought them back into the guardroom.”
Do we get a visual picture. During the forty year reign of Solomon, the most impressive part of the royal entourage was the entry of Solomon as he came to worship in the House of the Lord. Here the monarch became one with his people in worship before the Lord of hosts. We have noted before this is one of the most impressive images that the Queen of Sheba carried back to her homeland.
I Kings 10:4-5 - “And when the queen of Sheba had seen all the wisdom of Solomon, the house that he had built, the goods on his table, the seating of his servants, the service of his waiters and their apparel, his cupbearers, and his entryway by which he went up to the house of the Lord, there was no more spirit in her.”
Let us take historical facts of scripture and move them in reverse. The golden shields that Shisak carried away from Jerusalem back to Egypt were actually replaced by King Rehoboam, the son and successor of Solomon with bronze. But what shields was he using as ceremonial military shields?
Let us analyze these a minute. We have two hundred large shields of hammered gold with six hundred shekels of gold in each shield. Then we also have three hundred shields of hammered gold; three minas of gold went into each shield.
The large shields of six hundred shekels of gold would have had about fifteen pounds of gold in each shield. In all the two hundred large shields of hammered gold would have yielded, the counting the intrinsic worth of the artistic value, the gold bullion value of:
David fled from the presence of King Saul fearing for his life when the therapy of playing his harp in the presence of the king no longer was able to mollify Saul’s progressive depression and paranoia. David turned to the comrades he had made with Philistines and became good friends with Achish, son of Maoch, the king of Gath.
When the Philistines were later preparing to going to war against Saul, the Philistines commanders refused to let David go, fearing that he would turn traitor to them. At that time, David was released from the service of Achish and went to find his two wives at the town of Ziglag (1 Sam 29)
David and his personal entourage of 600 warriors arrived at Ziglag. It was a protected stronghold in a natural ravine and there David’s family and those of his Cherithite warriors were living. To their grief and dismay, they found the town burned to the ground by the Amalekites, and all the inhabitants gone and taken prisoners. Within the prisoners taken were the two wives of David, Ahinoam of Jezreel and Abigail widow of Nabal of Carmel and also his children.
Here again we see Amalekites, a warring tribe of Amalek, the incestuous son of the House of Ishmael and the House of Esau. As a tribe of the Arabians, they had a pathologic and genetic hatred to the children of Israel. We are only a few months or years after Saul refused to listen to the word of the Lord and destroy this entire nation, the king, Agag, plus all the men, women and children plus all their possessions, oxen, cattle and sheep. Here was when the Lord of hosts departed from Saul as king of Israel and his progressive psychosis and depression began to take possession of his body.
David’s personal bodyguards, 600 strong were about to revolt. (1 Sam 30:1-6) As we shall soon see his body guards were Cherithite and knowing that David was once a part of the court of Saul, they were about to stone David as being responsible for this vendetta against their families.
David summoned Abiathar the priest to bring the ephod with the Urim and Thummin to consult the Lord. (Vs. 7-10) With the assurance from the Lord when the high priest summoned the Divine through the Urim and the Thummin, David and his 600 rested at the ravine of Besor, left 200 of the weakest behind to protect the supplies possession and marched on after the Amalekites raiding party.
In route as they were tracking the enemy, they came upon a wandering and lost hungry Egyptian, who was a servant of the Amalekites, left behind by the long time enemies of Israel. David, instead of killing him, actually fed and befriended him and in doing so found out that the Amalekites had also raided the land of the Cherithite in Philistia, the Negev in the southern part of Judah and the land given as possession to Caleb in the days of Joshua. (Vs.10-16)
In a forced drive, with the Egyptian as their guide, David and his warriors overtook the Amalekites, rescued all their families, wives and children plus all the booty that was being carried by the Amalekites. He killed them all except 400 who fled by camel.
David immediately claimed possession of all the booty, yet he divided it equally with not only the 400 who fought the Amalekites, but also the 200 who stayed behind in the supporting services and protected the rear supply of David’s army. As so it was, “he (David) made it a statute and an ordinance for Israel to this day.” (vs25) We have to ask, which ‘day’ was this and who was the writer? We do not know as this is the Book of Samuel. David then went on and distributed the remainder of the spoils and the vast flocks with the elders of Judah.
The Dynasty of Saul was over and David, instructed by the Lord, plus using his own integrity with the booty, had effectively won the hearts of the elders of Israel and as circumstances would have it, was not a participant in the war that destroyed the Dynasty of the King of Israel, and forged a loyalty of the fierce warriors of the Cherithites, who stayed with the House of David as the personal bodyguard and protector of his palace
What we do see is that the Cherithites were living in Ziglag in the Negev. Apparently this was a stronghold of David and recognized as a Cherithite stronghold.
The name Cherithites or the Cherithim comes from the Hebrew word, krethiv (ker-ay-thee) (Strong’s 3774) which is derived from the root karath (kaw-rath) (Strong’s 3774), which means to cut off, down or asunder, or by implication to destroy, or consume, yet specific in reference to a covenant (alliance or bargain) with the cutting of the flesh (shared blood) or passing between the pieces like God did with Abram when he cut the bullock in his covenant with Abram.
They were recognized as part of the Philistines who had made a covenant with David and he developed a trusting relationship with them. Even later in the days of the Minor Prophets, there was a recognized nation of Cherithites (Zephaniah 2:5).
The Cherithites were used by David and the later kings of Israel and Judah as executioners (2 Kings 11:4) and as couriers (1 Kings 14:27) Coming from the southern coast of the Philistine Palestine (Isa 30:14, Ezekiel 25:16, Zephaniah 2:5), scholars suggest that they were from the Island of Crete, as is felt was the homeland of the Philistines and participated in the Sea Peoples invasions of the 13th century along the coastline of Israel and on to Egypt where the invasion was stopped by the Egyptian Pharaoh, Ramses III.
There home was by the Brook Cherith, which means a 'cut' or a 'gorge' which the scholar, N. Glueck believes was one of the easternmost branches of the Wadi el-Yabus in the highlands of Gilead, east of the Jordan. It was by this brook where the prophet Elijah hid from King Ahab. (I Kings 17:5) It is of interest that he hides east of the Jordan, yet when the brook goes dry; he traverses the entire land of Israel and goes to Sidon to Zaraphath to live with a widow. This is on the coast of the Mediterranean, near above Mount Carmel, which is also in the region of the Philistines. It is of interest that Abigail, the wife of David, who later jealously criticized David as he took off his royal robes and danced naked (with only his priestly garments) before the Lord as the Ark of the Covenant was being transported to Jerusalem.
The name, Pelethites appears to be a derivative of the Pelethi, variant of Pelishti or Philistines. Peleth (Strong's 6432) comes from the root plethyiy (pel-ay-thee) means to flee meaning swiftness and was used as a courier or official messenger. As bodyguards with the Cherithites (Philistines and the Cretans) they remained loyal to David and the House of David only. As warriors of foreign blood, they did not get involved with the politics and nationalistic interests of Israel. They were totally at the service of the king with no divided passions or loyalty to any of the twelve tribes.
During the revolt of Absalom (2 Sam 15:18-22) most of David's subjects deserted him and he fled to Ammon in present day Jordan in exile. It was Joab with this loyal 'royal guard' that eventually beat Absalom and later, Sheba, the son of Bichri, another rebel leader.
With a literal picture, of the hierarchy of the United Kingdom of David and Solomon, we must question whether it also gives us a shadow-picture of the time of the end and the relations of the modern Nation of Israel with her neighbors, the Palestinians and the Jordanian especially in the region of Gilead.
In the land of the ancient Pelethites, the land of the Philistines, reside the present people also in conflict with Israel, the Palestinians. Are we seeing a replay of the ancient Philistine - Israel wars with King Saul now in the Palestinian Intifada against the Sharon government? Will this be a replay of an ancient mini-drama or a reversal of that former shadow-picture? In the prophecies of Zechariah, which the BibleSearchers believe is a literal end time prophecy, replicating the ancient Philistine wars with King Saul. Here in the land of the ancient Philistines, the Oracles of the Lord are spoken against Gaza and the other cities of the Philistines.
Zechariah 9:5-7 - “Ashkelon shall see it, and fear; Gaza also and be very sorrowful, and Ekron (the northernmost of the 5 cities of the Philistines); for her Ambit (hope or expectation) shall be Yves (withered or dried up), and the king shall Avid (die, give up or surrender) from Gaza, and Ashkelon Loathe (shall not be inhabited).
“Mamzer (halachically a half-breed or a child of a mixed population from a Jewish mother and a non-Jewish father) shall dwell in Ashdod, and I will cut-off (uproot) the Ga’on (pride) of the Philistines.
“And I will take away his blood out of his mouth, and his abominations from between his teeth: (a picture of blasphemy and violence being removed) but he who remains alive, even he, shall be for our God, (HaShem) and he shall be as an ‘Aluf’ (docile or friendly element of the population) in Judah, and Ekron (northernmost of the 5 cities of the Philistines) as a Jebusite (the people who controlled the city site of Salem (Jerusalem) when David conquered it and these people lived in peace with Israel).”
It appears that like the Pelethites of old, a remnant of the Palestinians will be able to live in harmony and peace with the Palestinian Arabs.
Yet what about Gilead, the land of the Cherithites?
Zechariah 10:9-10 - “I will sow them (the Nation of Israel) among the peoples, and they shall remember Me in far countries; they shall live together with their children and they shall return.
“I will also (beside the worldwide assimilation of the Jews) bring them (House of Joseph and Ephraim) back from the land of Egypt and gather them from Assyria. I will bring them into the land of land of Gilead and Lebanon until no more room is found for them.”
How many of the indigenous peoples in the land of Egypt, Syria, Iran and Iraq today are actually descendants of the House of Israel? The Lord of hosts may yet have another surprise for us.
Secondly, does this literal picture of the monarchy of David and Solomon give us any spiritual insight into the hierarchy which is centered around the throne of God? Whether we like it or not the biblical portrayal of heaven is very similar with the king and an imperial hierarchy. In scripture, there is no type or shadow-pictures of the heavenly hierarchy that suggest that heaven is democratic or even a republic. For those looking towards a day in which Theocracy will be re-instituted on this earth with the Messiah ruling with a ‘Rod of Iron’ need to reconsider the fact that this will not be a democratic government or a Republic with the name of ‘God’ attached to it. The servant-hood of man to the Lord of hosts is a concept not literally perceived by most evangelical or Messianic Christians today.
Obviously the Archangels are the closest to the Throne of God and become the inner body guards of the Throne and God Himself. Even on a far higher dimensional level, there have been revolts and assaults on the Throne of God and the agency of God Himself. Was it not Satan, one of the Guardian Angels, who stood next to the throne of God who revolted against God and this revolt took with him a third of the angelic hosts?
The celestial pictures of the angels streaming out from the thrones of God is surely an anti-type of the Pelethites, as couriers or messengers for the Lord. On the other hand, the armies of heaven under the command of Michael would be suggestive of the Cherithites. Of course, Michael the Archangel would be the type of the pre-carnate Christ or the signet archangel who represents Christ. There is evidence or either position and difficult enough to understand with our limitation of this three dimensional world.
What inspiration this would be to the citizens of the Nation of the United Monarchy of Israel. What a beautiful shadow picture of the future reign of the Messiah, son of David, (Moschiach) worshipping in the Millennial temple built upon the pattern given to the Prophet Ezekiel in the land of Babylon. As Yeshua (Jesus), the messiah ben Joseph, in the first century worshipped His heavenly Father, so also the Yeshua, now as the messiah ben David (the Moschiach) will again be seen worshipping His heavenly Father residing again in the Holy of Holiest.
One of the largest construction projects in the world in the Late Bronze Age (11th century B.C.E.) was occurring in Jerusalem, the city of David. With this realization, we might have to reconsider some of the long held beliefs on how house the House of the Lord and all the other great government buildings in Jerusalem built during the reigns of David and Solomon were constructed. One thing that is known now, one of the prime building materials was gold and one of the prime technological treasures of the Israeli construction engineers were industrial gemstones that were used to build the Solomon’s Temple.
Here in the following text we get our first clue. What was of interest in that the quarrying of the large limestone block used in the foundation and the walls of these magnificent buildings, including his residence and the residence for the daughter for the Pharaoh of Egypt, one of his wives, were done by the Phoenician and Israeli stone quarrying crews cutting the limestone with “saws”.
I Kings 7:9-12 - “All these were of costly stones cut to size, trimmed with saws, inside and out, from the foundation to the eaves, and also on the outside to the great court. The foundation was of costly stones, large stones, some ten cubits and some eight cubits. And above were costly stone, hewn to size, and cedar wood. The great court was enclosed with three rows of hewn stones and a row of cedar beams. So were the inner court of the house of the Lord and the vestibule of the temple.”
We can now assume that Solomon with the Phoenician contractors, skilled in the finest of technological advances in the world at that time, had tube drills and drill bits, saws to cut limestone and large costly stones. They had the ability to bevel, mould and sculpt hard and durable stone with lathes to turn, polish stones for vases, bowls and pitchers for domestic and religious uses. They could saw with extreme accuracy large limestone blocks up to 40 square feet with parallel joints with remarkable flatness and finish. They also had the ability to transport these large stones over from beneath the quarries under the temple and to lift them to heights, maneuver them and place with extreme care one large stone upon another. This was not the technology of a primitive people. The artisan and builders of Egypt resurrected their long dormant technological instincts with the vision and skill of the Phoenicians. They did not match the building wonders of their Phoenician instructors, they surpassed them. Today we marvel not at the ancient buildings of Tyre and Sidon, but we do wonder at the mystery, mystique and awe of the House of the Lord built by King Solomon.
Yet to do this, they no doubt had the proper technological tools to cut and trim hard stones; bronze tools set with cutting points of corundum or diamond, sharp pointed graver for incising and etching on stone, large bronze saw blades embedded with diamond saw bits plus straight saws, circular saws, tubular diamond drills and lathes.
We have studied the beauty of the Almogim Tree, which was identified in the Bava Bashra as Coral Trees or almugim. Yet we have another candidate for the Almugim Tree. The Almug and the Algum tree is recorded in 1 Kings 10:11-12 and 2 Chr 9:10-11.
I Kings 10:11-12 - “Also, the ship of Hiram, which brought gold from Ophir, brought great quantities of almug wood and precious stones from Ophir.”
2 Chronicles 9:10-11 - “Also the servants of Hiram and the servants of Solomon, who brought gold from Ophir, brought algum wood and precious stones.”
Scholars have confused this with the Algum Tree imported from the mountains of Lebanon (II Chron. 2:8), known as the Cilician fir (Abies cilicia) or the Grecian juniper (Juniperus excelsa).
Yet the Hebrew, does state that algum trees were sent to Israel from Lebanon was well as from Ophir. In Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance, the word ‘Algum’ comes from the Hebrew word, alguwnniym (al-goom-meem - Strong’s 418) meaning sticks of algum wood, while almugim comes from the Hebrew word, ‘almuggiym (al-moog-gheem, Strong’s 484) which is in reality the plural form of almug. In reality they are the same specie or family of trees. Was algum and the almugim trees the same?
We do not know, but hints suggests that algum that was imported from Ophir was used for many practical purposes, such as walkways, stairways and terraces plus special décor articles of rarity created for their exquisite beauty, such as the fruited almug trees. Also algum wood was also used extensively in the construction of the stringed instrument section of the music department in the temple, the harps and the lyres built under the direct supervision of King David. Even so, the almugim trees in the Emeq HaMelekh were still possibly made from coral overlaid with pure gold.
2 Chronicles 2:8 - Letter of Solomon to Hiram - “Also send me cedar and cypress and algum logs from Lebanon, for I know that your servants have skill to cut timber in Lebanon…”
2 Chronicles 9:10-11 - “Also the servants of Hiram and the servants of Solomon, who brought gold from Ophir, brought algum wood and precious stones. and the king made walkways of the algum wood for the house of the Lord and for the king’s house, also harps and stringed instruments for singers; and there were none such as these seen before in the land of Judah.
The Almug wood as brought in great supplies from the land of Ophir where the finest gold was also mined and shipped to Solomon. It was used predominately in the temple for the terraces, stairs and balustrades, used predominately for fine joinery (II Par., ix, 11.)
I Kings 10:12 - “And the king made steps of the almug wood for the house of the Lord and for the king’s house, also harps and stringed instruments for singers. There never again came such almug wood, nor has the like been seen to this day.”
As we shall see in a later Mishnayots, the almug wood was also used for music instruments such as the harps, psalteries and the lyres, but it was also used to make the fruited trees that were overlaid with gold in the Garden of Eden.
Most scholars feel that almug is the same as Sandalwood which comes from a fragrant tropical wood, called Santalum album, an evergreen parasitic tree found on the Indian continent. The oil extracted from the wood has medicinal and uses in fragrances. On the other hand, Red Sandalwood come from a legume bearing tree that with pea-like blossoms and form pods, called Adenanthera pavonina or Sandalwood, Pterocarpus santalinus). It is also native to India and felt by scholars to be the real almug tree. It grows to a height of about twenty feet with a trunk circumference of four feet.
The sandalwood wood is very heavy, fine-grained, notably black on the surface, yet polishes to a rich ruby red or garnet color, because of the tannin when mixed with sapan. As such its wood is strong and has an antiseptic that make it impervious to termites as no insects will live within the wood. It was also used as a source of dye, giving a deep ruby red color to silken or woolen clothes. The aroma of its wood was used as a fragrance to the homes of the ancients.
Well the neither Count nor Galvani were the first to discover the use of electricity generated in a battery. The ancients were using electricity generated in small batteries twenty five hundred years ago to produce an electrical current used to coat small objects with a thin layer of gold. This was called electroplating. The thickness of the gold electroplate coating depended on how strong and how long a current could be used to attract gold to the object to be coated.
According to most texts the "voltaic pile," or electric battery, was invented in 1800 by the Count Alassandro Volta. Volta had observed that when two dissimilar metal probes were placed against frog tissue, a weak electric current was generated. Volta discovered he could reproduce this current outside of living tissue by placing the metals in certain chemical solutions. For this, and his other work with electricity, we commemorate his name in the measurement of electric potential called the volt.
Antimony Electroplated sword scabbard
It was actually another inventor, Dr. Colin Fink, who invented the tungsten light bulb, who analyzed a sword scabbard in 1933 and discovered that it had been plated with antimony sulfide. Yes, over three thousand years ago, the Egyptians were electroplating antimony onto a copper base.
Yet gold electroplating was not only used to fuse or bond gold to a more base metal such as silver, this technology was used also on wood and stone?
According to Alan Millard, professor of the University of Liverpool's School of Archaeology, Classics & Oriental Studies, the concept that Solomon’s temple was plated in gold, scoffed by most orientalists, was not unreasonable and is mentioned in many ancient texts.
"We are told, for instance", he points out, and “that the statue of Athena in the Parthenon was plated with gold which could be unhooked and melted down when times were tough. In due course plates were, in fact, melted down, and there is even a record of the number of coins made from them. There is also physical evidence of gold plating - for instance, traces can be found in Egyptian tombs. The gold seems to have been thicker than gold leaf - around the thickness of a milk bottle top."
Vendyl Jones Research Institute Home Page
Ashes for Beauty--The Mysterious Ashes of the Red Heifer by Jim Long
The Gate Between Two Walls, by Vendyl Jones
Vendyl Jones and the Ark of the Covenant by Gerard Robins
Temple Mount Sites
The Temple Mount in Jerusalem by the Temple Mount Organization
The Gihon Springs Temple Site by Ernest Martin
Emeq HaMelekh Sites
The Temple and the Copper Scrolls by the Order of the Nazorean Essenes
The Treasures in the House of the Lord by Lambert Dolphin
Gold and the Temple of Solomon
Ancient Electricity by Dennis Ramsey
The Baghdad Battery by the UnMuseum
Gold Plating by the Ancients by Allen Millard
The Curtains of the Temple by the Zion Messianic Jewish Fellowship
Ancient Stone Technology
Ancient Egyptian Stone Technology by R.F. McKenty
Advanced Machining in Ancient Egypt by Christ Dunn
Technology of Ancient Ireland by Carmel McCaffrey and Leo Eaton
Ancient Rare Metal Technology in Ireland by Ireland Educational Broadcasting Corp.
Message from BibleSearchers
BibleSearchers scans the world for information that has relevance on the time of the end. It is our prayer that this will allow the believers in the Almighty One of Israel to “watch and be ready”. Our readiness has nothing to do trying to halt the progression of evil on our planet earth. In our readiness, we seek to be prepared for the coming of the Messiah of Israel so that goodness and evil will be manifested in its fullest. Our preparation is a pathway of spiritual readiness for a world of peace. Our defender is the Lord of hosts. The time of the end suggests that the Eternal One of Israel’s intent is to close out this chapter of earth’s history so that the perpetrators of evil, those that seek power, greed and control, will be eliminated from this planet earth. The wars of the heavens are being played out on this planet earth and humans will live through it to testify of the might, power, justice and the love of the God of Israel. In a world of corruption and disinformation, we cannot always know what the historical truth is and who is promoting evil or mis-information. We cannot guarantee our sources but we will always seek to portray trends that can be validated in the Torah and the testimony of the prophets of the Old and the New Testament.
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