Man, ya'll sure choose some tough texts! The visions of Z’charyah are among the hardest passages in the entire Tanach to exegete. Rashi wrote that since all nine of his visions are so enigmatic, we will not know the true interpretation until the “teacher of righteousness” (Eliyahu) comes. Since there is very little emphasis on prophecy and eschatology in Judaism (and more emphasis on halachah and keeping mitzvoth), there is also very little commentary available. But, with Hashem’s help, I have done what I could to help with my thoughts and some of the commentaries I have been able to find.
Shalom Shalom to all,
Maggid Ben Yosef (Dell)
Zechariah 11 – The Good and Evil Shepherds in the Land of Israel
October 15, 2002
This chapter is truly the toughest and most difficult to interpret. In the fall of 2000, I asked ben Joseph to help me in the exegetical interpretation of this chapter. It is of interest in the worldview between the literal Israelite, the orthodox Jew, living in the land and the spiritual Israelite.
The literal Israelite focus is on The Land, keeping intact the commandments (mitsvoths) of the Lord` in the Torah, all 613 of them, and the emphasis of keeping true and pure the human fulfillment and application of those commands, the halachah.
The spiritual Israelite is focused towards the inward or implantation of the spirit of HaShem within his heart and forward looking to the final consummation of the era of evil that has terrorized this planet since the fall of Adam and Eve. The true Terrorist is HaSatan, the Adversary who directs the forces of Evil. Here is the archenemy of HaShem that is played out over and over in individual and human evil, which is becoming again a global phenomenon. Yes, the Spiritual Israelite’s emphasis is on eschatology and the prophecies of the end of times. Instead of being ‘out of here’ in a pre-tribulation rapture, the Spiritual Israelite will become the global spiritual guerrilla warriors assisting their literal and more visible brethren taking the international attention and hatred from those hate and despise the God of Israel. This is the God who demands their full allegiance, their servant-hood, their servitude to the Divine.
Let us now separate each entity: the shepherd, the flock and The Land and analyze the options, keeping a global view in mind. In the end of days, we will see physically and literally a realignment of the national political and spiritual leadership (the Shepherds), a realignment of the public concepts viewpoints and ideology (the Flocks), and a realignment of nationalistic attachment to the land (nationalism) plus a physical realignment of the super continents with the return of the continental land masses to Pangea in the final catastrophic era before the Great and Awful Day of the Lord. Yes, the Garden of Eden and the super continent of Pangea will be restored.
Who are the shepherds and what are they going to do? The shepherds are the leaders, whether political, economic, military and religious, who are for or against the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Yes, the shepherds are anyone who leads, commands, influences or controls. Think big, think globally, think universally. What we will be discussing in this chapter will involve the political leaders of all nations, those economic and scientific brainchild’s who mold the economic and scientific institutions of the world, the military generals and commanders who will become more and more under the influence of the forces of good and evil, and the religious leaders of all faiths, Christian, Jews, Islamic, Hindu, Confucius, and hundred of other religious ideologies who force and coerce their flocks to think and pattern their thoughts and ideals down patterned and constricted pathways. The Lord of Hosts is about to reprograms our minds to think in other-dimensional spheres. To do so, we must break with our religious ideologies and learn to become totally depended upon direction of the ‘still small voice’ of HaShem, the God of Israel, as He leads us up to the Pole of Grace, the pathway Y’shua went before us. If we follow the pathway of Christ, we will be recipients to participate in the glorified worlds of other-dimensional living.
The flocks, the national populations, will be those who are for and against the physical return or the spiritual attachment with the House of Jacob, including both the House of Joseph (the exiled northern tribes of the House of Israel, represented by Ephraim) and the House of Judah. Look in the eyes and read the hearts of the people involved in the struggle to keep possession of the land of Israel. The arch enemies of Israel from the moment the tribes of Israel fled from Egypt were the tribes of Amelak, who with the tribes of Edom, children of Esau, Moabites and Ammonites, the children of Lot by incestuous relations with his daughters, will be the same forces that will polarize the world today. Who do you fear most today? The Russian bear? No! The Chinese dragon? Well, maybe. The Islamic Jihad? Absolutely! This fear will polarize the United States of America to demand, force, and coerce the control of the Land of Israel, because this is what the ancestors of the Ismaelites, the Amelekite, the Edomites, the Moabites, and the Ammonites want today. The mini-dramas that were played in the restoration of the Children of Israel to the Land of Promise will be replayed in greater and more global force as eventually, the United States, the European Community, the Russian Confederations and the Chinese will unite to a final assault upon Jerusalem at Megiddo, the final battle of Armageddon.
This polarization of the flocks will occur in the chambers of the Senate and the House, the backroom chambers of the Foreign Relations Department, the State Department, the Pentagon, the Banking Houses of the world, the Scientific consortiums of the world, and in the General Assemblies and Councils of every religion in the world. Yes, all of these will become polarized to accept or reject whether the chosen ones of the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob have a right to occupy and live and worship in the Land of Israel.
Can you imagine the ecumenical arm of religions who will reach out to the Islamic Jihad, the peaceful Moslems, and will proclaim peace throughout the land, peace in the land of Israel in which all nations and religions can worship on the Temple Mount, under the brilliant leadership of a world leader who will appear to form a world of millennial peace? The leader of deception, the Antichrist, will precede the real Messiah and the Millennial Kingdom.
The Land will be a literal restoration of the Kingdom of David and Solomon, which extended from the Euphrates to the brook of Egypt, the physical restoration of the people to the land, including the restoration of the House of Joseph to the lands of Lebanon, Gilead and Basham. As noted in chapter ten, this will be an enlargement of the borders of Israel, to include the coastline of Lebanon, the Lebanese and Anti-Lebanese mountains, including Mount Herman, the Golan Heights, western portions of Syria, including Damascus (Basham), and the former land occupied by Mannaseh, Gad and Reuben on the eastern side of the Jordan River. This land mass will include land presently under the political control of the countries of Lebanon, Syria and Jordan.
What this chapter is all about is the global polarization that will occur throughout the whole earth as the end of days approach. This earth will be entering a new catastrophic era. As the national leaderships are polarized and the nationalism of the people are polarized, the spiritual forces of HaShem will reverse the geo-physical forces that stabilize this earth into this present era of uniformity. The scientific minds which have looked at the world’s physical forces and proclaimed that an evolutionary process, slow and progressive, is what made this earth what it is are in for a intellectual shock of spiritual reality. The world is in the last stage of decay of entropy and will expel her last breath of geo-physical energy or this earth will be revitalized as the forces of the Almighty God begin to reverse the process of continental separation. This will lead to the eventual restoration of the Garden of Eden and the millennial kingdom under the sword of the Y’shua, the Messiah ben David. Under Jesus, Himself, now King of Kings and Lord of Lords, we will see The Land restored, the restoration of the monarchy of David, the glorification of the Spiritual Israelites to reside on the Sea of Glass by the Throne of God, the restoration of the 144,000 genetic Israelites to serve in the Heavenly Temple of the Lord and the physical return of the Houses of Judah and Joseph intact to begin the restoration not only of the Land of Israel but the whole earth. Only then can the curse of sin be eradicated not just from humans but the curse against the land and the animal kingdom be destroyed also. Yes, the whole earth is groaning under the curse initiated by man, Adam. It will be Y’shua, the new Adam who will lead out in the restoration of the whole land, this planet earth. Genetic evil must be eradicated not only from humans, but from every plant, animal, and living organism on this earth. To you our scientists, your day has only begun.
This Day of the Lord will have universal consequences as the angelic forces of good and evil will meet their final polarization and separation. It is the assumption of some that the World of Angels and the Archangels have already polarized, yet the battle in which Satan (HaSatan) will be finally cast out of heaven, after his last assault against the throne of the Living God, has every appearance in Revelation to be a future time event. If Satan cannot achieve his ultimate goal to overthrow the Throne of God, the Keter or the Crown of the Sefirot in the World of the Divine, then he will turn his final attention to capture or control where the Lord of Hosts will choose to anchor his Sefirot into the Kingdom, the literal and physical spot where God, in the Shekinah Glory will manifest Himself to all the earth and to the whole universe. It is a potential fact that the salvation of the whole universe, at least our universe, depends upon the literal ability to anchor His vast vortex of energy on this earth in a literal physical and spiritual restoration. This is the Plan of Salvation which will culminated this Great Controversy between God and Satan.
The Oracles of the Lord against Lebanon
11:1 – Open your doors, O Lebanon, that fire may devour your cedars.
“This is the direct command from the Lord of Hosts. The protection of Hashem is over. The door will open and the land will be devoured, even the pride of Lebanon, the beautiful cedars.” One year ago (9/2000) this was all I could say about this text. It seemed to be another literal rendition of chapter nine in which the enemies of Israel to the northwest, northeast and western coast of Gaza would be facing dire omens of destruction.
The usual interpretation is that this is the Temple that is destroyed since the cedars for the Temple came from Lebanon and the reference to “opening the DOORS.”
I have three ideas to present.
First, I (personally) tend to look at things more literal in terms of current events. The problem with this, however, is as current events unfold and change, the interpretation can change. HOWEVER, today we have this very scenario developing in Lebanon. In Kaballah, the “trees” are symbolic of either “rulers” or “spiritual leaders,” depending on the context in which they are used. With the spiritual leaders of the Hizbullah INVITING war with Israel any day now, this could pertain to the Hizbullah.
If we are on the brink of a regional war that will lead to Gog and Magog by this Succot, we STILL don’t have the alliance completed that will come against Israel. Turkey (the land mass of ancient Assyria) has not yet become a fully Islamic nation, although there are definite signs of discontent and unrest (witnessed by the recent arrests and rioting against the government). By this logic, these “cedars of Lebanon” indicate that Lebanon itself is a “puppet” and the cedars that rule it are the Islamic nations, Arab states and religious opponents of Israel who are using Lebanon as a “staging ground” for the upcoming invasion from the North.
(9/00) Today along the entire border between Israel and Lebanon, there are more than 30 Hizbullah gun emplacements (since “General Barak” sounded retreat). The IDF has about 75 tanks in position and we are hastily completing construction of a new border road that is safe from sniper fire. An IDF solider is either killed or injured on the average of once every two weeks. Hizbullah is controlled today by Syria. A recent attack on a Golani Brigade patrol within Israel has prompted an emergency meeting of Syria, Jordan and Lebanon to discuss Israel’s PROMISED retaliation.
Second, we might view this as a judgment that already has occurred during the period of the Ottoman Turks who cut down all the trees when they invaded. If so, the prophecy of Zecharya should loosely trace what has transpired in Israel since the Turks were driven out by Britain (the young lions of the prophecy)
Finally, since Zecharyah prophesied after the exile of the Northern Kingdom the fallen cedar may refer to Jeroboam and the House of Israel. The reference to the two staffs seems to have this historical slant.
As you progress through the passages you might try to parallel these three ideas.
I will confine my comments to exegetical helps and any strong impressions:
We shall now take another look for it seems the symbolism appears to prevail. The mighty fire of God’s wrath will first devour the mightiest of the trees in the land, the Cedars of Lebanon. Is this going to be a scorched earth policy in the land of Lebanon? Maybe so, and maybe not. The mystical symbolism of trees has long been known to represent humans, and prized trees represented the rulers, national leadership, whether political, intellectual, or religious.
Is this not the intent of Judges 9, when the olive tree, the fig tree, the vine rejected the responsibility of leadership over God’s people, so the lowly bramble, who had no inherent commercial worth, was able to light the flame of the fire which would topple the mighty cedar, the enemies of Israel.
Judges 9:8-15 - The trees went forth [on a time] to anoint a king over them; and they said unto the olive tree, Reign thou over us.
But the olive tree said unto them, Should I leave my fatness, wherewith by me they honour God and man, and go to be promoted over the trees?
And the trees said to the fig tree, Come thou, [and] reign over us
But the fig tree said unto them, Should I forsake my sweetness, and my good fruit, and go to be promoted over the trees?
Then said the trees unto the vine, Come thou, [and] reign over us.
And the vine said unto them, Should I leave my wine, which cheereth God and man, and go to be promoted over the trees?
Then said all the trees unto the bramble, Come thou, [and] reign over us.
And the bramble said unto the trees, If in truth ye anoint me king over you, [then] come [and] put your trust in my shadow: and if not, let fire come out of the bramble, and devour the cedars of Lebanon.
Now therefore, if ye have done truly and sincerely, in that ye have made Abimelech king, and if ye have dealt well with Zerubbaal and his house, and have done unto him according to the deserving of his hands;
When we address a prophetic oracle, we need to remind ourselves that HaShem has a plan, a Plan of Salvation for the whole world. How can the Almighty reveal to us His plan but to over and over introduce us to parts of it in mini-dramas that over and over give us a feeling of de-ja-vu. More and more as God’s plan is being revealed to us and several facets seem to become more clear. The Plan for redeeming His people, literal and spiritual Israel, was initiated before the creation of this earth, it’s unfolding is under the direct supervision of the Lord of Hosts, and the timing of the fulfillment of His Plan is under the direct will and supervision of God.
Living on this earth is limited to a three dimensional perspective in which time, as understood by man is linear time. There is a beginning and an end. We cannot go back into time and cannot live physically in time’s future. What is understood in all scripture, both the Old and the New Testaments, the nation of Israel is central to God’s Plan to redeem this earth. It is central to the physical and spiritual redemption of mankind and more than that, it is central to the redemption of the earth, or the Land itself.
One of the grand themes of the Hebrew faith was the concept of the Mo’eds, or the ‘appointed times’ represented in the festivals of Israel. Here was a way for humans to connect in a living way, by a repeated living drama on a cyclical basis, how man would eventually meet his final destiny that HaShem had ordained prior to the foundations of this earth. It was written, “To everything there is an appointed time, and a moment for every purpose under Heaven” (Eccl. (Kohelet) 3:1)
To understand the Torah, the searcher of Torah knowledge, must first understand that ‘time’ in the Torah is different than literal time in our human experience. To the Hebrew, ‘time’ had a cyclical dimension, a spiral like the vortex of the tornado. This spiral is literal and spiritual in a multi-dimensional sphere. Importantly, it revolves around the Land and the Nation of Israel, both literally and spiritually. It is a repetitive cycle that keeps that keeps repeating itself over and over, first over long reaches of time, but the vortex getting tighter and tighter until all the prophetic dramas are played out in one giant massive dramatic act called the End of Times and the Great Day of the Lord. Prophecy is the spiritual repetition and fulfillment of this drama. Human History is the literal fulfillment. Each historical moment has a spiritual counterpart, as all creation, humans and all creatures on this earth are progressively working towards a tikkun or reconciliation with each other, with our proper role as guardians of this earth and in reconciliation with our Maker and Creator.
With this in mind, we can study the repetitive cycle of history in reference to the Land of Israel and gain meaning to its final days before the end of time. Let us look at some of the concepts of ben Joseph. Revelation reveals to us a supra-dimensional view of Heaven in which the activities on this earth are in reflection to what is going on in the heavenly temple of God. Was it not the apostle John who witnessed just before the seventh trumpet of the Lord would sound, “God’s temple in heaven (the door) was opened, and within his temple was seen the ark of his covenant. And there came flashes of lightning, rumblings, peals of thunder, an earthquake and a great hailstorm.” (Revelation 11:19)
When it comes to judgment of a nation, the symbolic doors of the temple open, and God presents His case and judgment. His first judgment is upon the cedars or the mighty leaders in the land. The literal leaders of Lebanon today are the Hizbullah and the military power of Syria and the spiritual leaders are the mullahs.
11:2 – Wail, (Howl) O Cypress, for the cedar has fallen, because mighty trees are ruined.
Would it be suggestive that the cypress is the mightiest tree in the land since the cedar has fallen? The could be ominous since the Cypress, the next person to assume the mantle of leadership could be a target for destruction. In Ezekiel 31:3, the ruler of Assyria was identified as the cedar and also as a shadowing shroud.
Ezekiel 31:3 – Behold, the Assyrian was a cedar in Lebanon with fair branches, and with a shadowing shroud, and of an high stature; and his top was among the thick boughs.
I can agree with this in the context of current events, since the land mass of Assyria today is Turkey and the Turks have a history of cutting down trees, as I alluded to above. I look for Turkish intervention or something coming out of Turkey any day now … again … IF this is the year for Gog and Magog this Succot. However, you bring a very complicated verse. The problem is the phrase CHORESH METZAL, which you have translated “a shadowing shroud.” This is a “thick-branched” tree that casts an imposing shadow. Also the reference to the “top among the thick boughs.” A better translation is “its crown was among the INTERWOVEN branches.” There are two ideas that stem from this: 1) This was Ashur, (for whom Assyria was named) because at the time the plans were being laid for the building of the tower of Bavel, he saw his sons falling under the influence of Nimrod and left before the incident was judged and for this Hashem later rewarded him with the rise to world dominion. 2) The CROWN of a Cedar remains separate from the intermingled branches, which surround it. This is interesting because although Turkey is under the spell of Islam for sure, I would not call it an “Arab” nation. There is a heavy Persian presence from neighboring Iran, and one thing you do not do is call an Arab a Persian or a Persian an Arab (unless you want to die real quick)..
Looking into the map above, yes the Assyrian Empire was like a giant tree, a cedar, whose top is as a shadowing shroud that was among the thick boughs. It truly cast an imposing shadow over the whole middle east. The nation of Syria under the military dictatorship of Assad, is the modern day reincarnation of the Assyrian nation, and carried the core name as her national identity. Syria today has the same ideology of a terror machine as did ancient Assyria, ruthless and merciless to her adversaries. She houses more terrorist organizations than probably any other nation in the world.
Yet in true form, part of this land mass is the present day country of Turkey, though Moslem, is still our ally and a member of NATO. How should we look at this passage?
One thought suggests that Turkey stands as the roof over the entire Middle East in
geographical topography and demographics, is like a giant tree that casts her shadow over the region. If Turkey, though a Moslem nation, still has a national identity separate from the rest of the trees, such as not being of Arabian (descendents of Ishmael) or Canaanite (Canaan, grandson of Ham) descent, then in the final drama she will stand above the other middle eastern countries in military and spiritual haughtiness. This may be the unfolding drama as the land around Israel is rearranged to finally host the invasion of the forces of Gog and Magog near the End of Times.
Secondly, we have the literal tentacles of Syria, which move throughout the land of Lebanon. There is no political move done today without the knowledge and approval of Syria. The terrorists who maintain their forward positions on the northern border of Israel have brought this land, once known as the Switzerland of the middle east in beauty and in economic commerce, to a backward land of feudal warlords and fiefdoms.
The United States as the Great Eagle with Great Wings
Thirdly, there was an imagery that was even more relevant to Zechariah, that is the cedar of Lebanon was Nebuchadnezzar, the mighty emperor of Babylon, the captors of Daniel and Zechariah, the prophet. It was Ezekiel, who again talked of a cedar, this time being cropped by a great eagle.
Ezekiel 17:3 – A great eagle with great wings, long-winged, full of feathers, which had divers (embroidered) colors, came unto Lebanon, and took the highest branch of the cedar: He cropped off the top of his young twigs and carried it into a land of traffic (land of Canaan); he set it in a city of merchants.
Obviously this power comes from outside of Lebanon as evidenced by its wings. The land of traffic is also interesting. If you have ever been to Istanbul, (Constantinople, Turkey) you know that it is the place where East meets West and is a MAJOR marketplace, much more so than Israel today. I definitely see an influence of Turkey in this passage when interpreted re: current events.
Once again we are seeing a mini-drama, this time as Nebuchadnezzar cropping of the top of the cedar, which was Judah, and carrying her into a land of commerce and traffic. This seems to play into the imagery of John in Revelation as the End Times Babylon being a land of commerce and traffic.
Yet the imagery seems to change again in our modern world. Who is the eagle? Not only that but who is the “great eagle with great wings, long-winged, full of feathers, which had divers (embroidered) colors” Any school child would say this was the United States of America, the great land peopled with people from around the world of diverse colors, making this the most mosaic country in the world. Not only that, America is symbolic of her mighty commercial and military air fleets, with great wings of an eagle.
What we are seeing today, the modern America, who imposes her might upon all the nations by her military aerial dominance. Look at Serbia, reduced to rubble and to the ‘stone age’ as some commentators have noted by the air force destruction of her military defense systems. Look at Iraq, in the Persian War, who with lightning speed, was reduced to burnt out tanks and airplane hulls in the desert sands by the air power of America. Look at Afghanistan, and the al Qaida with the Taliban, were also reduced to rubble, allowing the Northern Alliance to literally walk across the land as victors without hardly a battle to claim for its own.
Wail (Howl), O oaks of Basham, for the thick forest has come down.
Again, the oaks of Basham will be leveled down. Basham (fruitful), was a district east of Jordan, the limits were strictly defined as extending from the ‘border of Gilead’ on the south to Mount Hermon on the north (Deuteronomy 3:3,10,14; Joshua 12:5, 1 Chronicles 5:23), and from the Arabah or Jordan valley on the west to Salchah (Sulkhad) and the border of the Geshurites and the Maachathites on the east. (Joshua 12:3-5); Deuteronomy 3:10) This district was given to the half-tribe of Manasseh (Joshua 13:29-31), together with ‘half of Gilead’
Here, I would bring SYRIA, because the Golan today is a different land mass than the half-tribe of Manasseh and the best cattle-producing region is farther to the east into the plains of Bashan, which fall into the border between Israel and SYRIA and part of Jordan. Syria has clearly been pulling the puppet strings in Lebanon and to see it invaded by a more powerful nation (today part of the NATO alliance) is reason for howling.
With Syria today on the Security Council of the United Nations (September, 2001) and a military engagement by the United States against the country of Lebanon, which Syria controls and the country of Syria itself will be reason to howl. This howling will ring throughout the courts of the United Nations and across the world media who are fully captivated by the progressing drama of polarity between Christians, Jews and Islam.
The Cry of the Political Leaders of Lebanon and Syria
11:3 – There is a sound of wailing shepherds! For their glory is in ruins. There is the sound of roaring lions! For the pride of the Jordan is in ruins.
The leaders again seem to be the political and spiritual leaders of the lands of Lebanon, Basham and the Jordan valley.
Jeremiah 25:34-36 - Howl, ye shepherds, and cry; and wallow yourselves in the ashes, ye principal of the flock: for the days of your slaughter and of your dispersions are accomplished: and he shall fall like a pleasant vessel. And the shepherds shall have no way to flee, nor the principal of the flock to escape. A voice of the cry of the shepherds, and a howling of the principal of the flock, shall be heard: for the Lord hath spoiled their pasture.”
The pride and glory of the ancients were their forests. Each section was renown for the special trees: the cedars of Lebanon, the oaks of Basham, the forest along the Jordan River Valley. Also the Jordan River itself is called the Pride of Jordan, since it is cool, clear unpolluted water that comes out of Mount Lebanon (Hermon) and flows toward the Dead Sea as a lifeline for the farmers all along its banks.
The lands of Lebanon and Basham constitute the current Phoenician lands of Lebanon, including the Lebanese Mountains, the Becah Valley and the Anti-Lebanese mountains which peak on the southern end by the majestic peaks of Mount Herman. Below this mountain are the Golan Heights to the east of Lake Galilee, taken by Israel from Syria in the 1967 War. It constitutes the Land of Basham. From Mount Hermon, flow the Jordan River with the melting of the snow into water pure and clear. That is could be called the ‘Pride of Jordan’ is true and contested by the roaring of young lions, the military warriors from the Nation of Israel.
Another symbolism is suggested. This reminds one of the ancient and modern techniques to humiliate and control the arrogance and haughtiness of enemy prisoners; cut off all their hair (trees) and their identity is destroyed. Again, this is what the Ottoman Turks did when they invaded.
Once again, let us compare with Zechariah 10:10, “Bring them to the Land of Gilead and Lebanon”. This land is to the northwest of Israel in the present day land of Lebanon, and Gilead is along the eastern border of the Jordan River from below the Sea of Galilee to the region east of the upper middle region of the Dead Sea. It appears that the land given to Manasseh, Gilead and Basham will be beauty, the prime pastureland for cattle will become the future home of the House of Joseph and the arrogance of the indigenous Assyrian (Syrians), Moabite and Ammonite (Jordan) peoples will be destroyed.
Historically, the young lions of Britain drove out the Ottoman Turks. A case in point, the Sultan of Turkey, during the era of 1860 to 1917, transferred thousands of Moslems from seventeen different countries to Palestine to offset the growing population majority of Jews in the Land, of which tens of thousands were assimilated from the Moslem sector of Bosnia. In 1917, after World War I, thousands of European Jews returned to the Land of Israel to make it their home. The population of then known British Colonial Palestine, was predominately Jewish with a few Arabs tribesmen living in the area and the Land of Israel was predominately a desolate wasteland. Together they lived and co-existed peaceably.
President Benes of Czechoslovakia promoted the idea in 1919 with U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, the idea of a Jewish Homeland in the region called Palestine. The world leaders who became the architects of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles all agreed that the Jewish should be allowed to settle in the land known as known as the British Colonial Palestine. The rest of the land from Iraq to Yemen would go to the rest of the Arabian people. Yet, it was the British in 1921, who created the Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan as a Palestine for the Arabs. It was suppose to leave room for a Jewish state, which never was allowed to became a political reality.
The failure of the world leaders, predominately British, to create a viable Jewish state led eventually to the Holocaust under Hitler Germany with the Jewish people having no homeland to escape or flee to, perished by the millions. Where did this resistance come from. The British had to motive to form a new nation of Israel, for the monarchy of British, believes that they are the living and visible throne of Israel today. Are they not the genetic royal lineage that was preserved from the House of David from the remnant that fled to Egypt with Jeremiah the Prophet. Here Tamar Tephi, the last princess of Israel married a Scythian prince and became the first Queen of the House of Ireland, the ancestors to the British Royal Family.
This land of Israel did not come into reality until 1947 when Menachem Begin, the “young lions of Judah” drove out the old Lions, the British out of Colonial Palestine in the War of Liberation.
Yet when the UN resolution 181 of 1947 was formulated, which called for the partitioning of Palestine into two states, one Jewish and one Arab, this land was part of British Colonial Palestine which included Judea and Samaria. It was the “young lions of Judah” who liberated their Land from the British, but before the British withdrew, the Jewish people were forcibly evacuated from Judea and Samaria so that Jordan (Hashemite (God’s??) Kingdom of Jordan) could accept national control over the area. Of the land envisioned by President Benes of Czechoslovakia with President Woodrow Wilson of American in 1919, only 10% was eventually given to the Jews to be their homeland.
11:4 Thus says the Lord my God; “Feed the flock for slaughter.
The Good Shepherd is now introduced, in the role acting by the Prophet Zechariah. Here is the command of the Lord to Zechariah to ‘feed the flock for slaughter”. Yet, who was the Good Shepherd to really be? Was it to be the leaders in the Land of Israel who were to feed the flock of the conquered lands of Lebanon, Basham and Jordan valley, flock of the slaughter that is left over by the slaughter of the people living in those countries.
If you are dealing historically here with Turkey’s dominion over Israel, the flock of the slaughter was Israel who was destined for slaughter until Hashem intervened with the Brits. If you are dealing with modern history in the 21st century, we may see Israel seeking to reclaim the boundaries of the land envisioned to be given to them in 1917, which constitute nearly the boundaries of the former kingdom of David and Solomon. Then the ‘flock of slaughter’ would be the Palestinians, the indigenous Lebanese, the Syrians and the modern day Jordanians who will occupy these lands. How will Israel treat these peoples who have been repatriated even forcibly to the land of Israel, when they come under their control? If history has been any lessons, the life of the Arab under the leadership and control of the Israelis has been one of prosperity which have historically left the Israeli Arab among the most affluent in the middle east. Even so, the care and acceptance of the aliens within the land still remains a human rights issue, which modern day Israel has not come up to the standards HaShem gave His people three thousand years ago.
The Evil Shepherds
11:5 - Whose owners slaughter them and feel no guilt; those who sell them say, ‘Blessed be the Lord, for I am rich’; and their shepherds do not pity them.
This again identifies the evil shepherds. Who then are the ‘owners’ or these possessors be? This is possibly a picture of the subsequent British rule historically or the suicidal government of Israel today.
Another possibility, is it the Nation of Israel, or the leadership in the lands of Lebanon and Syria who have sold out the populations to the multiple terrorist organizations, either out of fear and extortion. Remember within the Land of Israel, there are evil shepherds whose evil intent is to control not only the Land of Israel for their own personal power, greed and control, but whose mission is to control the world.
Let us look at this verse again.
Zechariah 11”4-5 - “Feed the flock of the slaughter. Whose possessors slay them and hold themselves
not guilty: And they that sell them say, Blessed be the Lord; for I am rich: And their own shepherds pity them not.”
The political leadership within the land of Israel in the Liberal party has been known to sell out to their own people, the land and even the sovereignty of the nationhood of Israel. It has only been a few months ago when Prime Minister Barak was willing to give a majority of the land Yasser Arafat wanted, including the Temple Mount and part of Jerusalem for it’s capital. Yet the Lord of Hosts hardened the heart of Arafat, just like HaShem hardened the heart of Pharaoh during the exile. God’s Will and His plan for His land and His people will happen in His own way and in His good time.
Well the political leadership of the Herodians in the time of Christ were also evil shepherds. It must not be forgotten that Herod was an Idumean from the land of Moab and the House of Esau. Yes, the genetic lineage of Esau that HaShem said he hated was the ruling party in the Land of Judea during Jesus’ day. They sold out the people to the control of the Romans. They sold out the High Priest’s office to the highest bidder instead of remaining in the sacred trust of the House of Aaron and the tribe of Levi. The peasants and the common people were abused and harassed into submission, using the power of the yoke of Rome.
Well what is happening today? The Nation of Israel is controlled by secular Israelis, whose allegiance is to the ideology of Zionism as a controlling and oppressing political force.
This is not the land of promise to all people, but just to those who fit a narrow ideological framework of genetic ancestry. Is the House of Israel welcome in the land of Israel today? No! Only Jews are welcome to repatriate to the Land. Are people who are willing to live a life of orthodoxy as proclaimed by the Orthodox Jews welcome to the land? No! A secular Jew, who may hate the God of Israel is welcome into the Land, yet a person, who wants to live a life of Torah observance, within the land of Israel, like an Orthodox Jew, and does not have the genetic credentials to be a Jew, and believes also in Y’shua as their personal messiah, is not treated like an alien to the land of Israel, but an enemy of the Land of Israel.
The Palestinian Liberation Organization, who with Yasser Arafat’s presidential guard known as the Force 17, are bankrolling the entire Tanzim-Fatah terrorists organizations from Arafat’s presidential budget, a budget that is funded by European Union member governments, including Germany, Belgium, France, UK and Italy by more than 2 million dollars a month.
These are the shepherds under the political banner of Islamic terrorism, have control today the West Bank, which resides within the legitimate domain of the House of Israel.
The Gaza Strip on the other hand was never under the control of any of the tribes of Israel or the United Monarchy, and remained as land under the control of the enemies of Israel in that day, the Philistines. These modern day Philistines are also responsible to HaShem as the responsible party for protecting their flock. Yet we have to bear in mind the images of the schools in the West Bank and Gaza Strip that are teaching the children the doctrine of hate and terror, and the ‘brave’ terrorists of the PLO, Tanzim, Fatah, Hamas and other groups who use these children including women as shields to protect them, the terrorists, from the bullets of the Israeli snipers. Yet they say, “Blessed be Allah”.
The revelation of these evil shepherds claiming, “I am rich , yet they pity not their people, reminds us of the recent article by DEBKAfiles. “On October 30,(2001), four days before an economic conference on the Middle East is due to open at Palma de Majorca, Germany announced it was transferring to the Palestinian Authority the sum of 250 million Deutschmarks. It may therefore be of interest, particularly before British prime minister Tony Blair calls on Arafat on Thursday, to find out how the Middle East economy looks from the perspective of the Palestinian West Bank hub town of Ramallah, in the light of new discoveries revealed to DEBKAfile by high-placed intelligence sources.
On October 22, when Israeli forces burst into the Ramallah headquarters of Yasser Arafat’s presidential guard known as Force 17, they found an extraordinary set of documents containing proof that the Palestinian leader was paying the entire body of Tanzim-Fatah terrorists out of his own “presidential” budget. The figures were there in black and white. Every one of the 10,000 Tanzim activists was taking home 875 New Israeli Shekels – and had been ever since the Palestinian leader launched his armed confrontation against Israel last September. The Ramallah raid was carried out as part of a comprehensive punitive operation for the assassination of Israel’s tourism minister Rehavam Zeevi on October 17. The captured documents included Arafat’s signed directive, issued three weeks before the outbreak of the intifada, to pay $22,000 each into the personal account of each of the leading Fatah terror masters for defray the costs of creating the terror spearhead body named the Tanzim. A corps of Palestinians was to be recruited who were prepared to engage in bombing, shooting, lynching and any other form of terror against Israel that was ordered by their masters. The recipients of these funds were the Tanzim commander Marwan Barghouti, Kemal Hamad, Ahmed Abayat (whom Israeli forces killed this month), Issam Abu Bakr and other Arafat trusties. The documents showed exactly how Arafat’s office transfers the Tanzim payroll to the Ramallah offices of Force 17, whose paymasters distribute the wage packets.
11:6 – For I will no more pity the inhabitants of the land,” saith the Lord: ‘But indeed I will give everyone into his neighbor’s hand and into the hand of his king. They shall attack the land, and I will not deliver them from their hand.”
No matter what happens in the Land, nothing will work. The genetic inbreeded evil continues to breed more and more violent. Evil men will continue to incite more evil. This is a concept that is foreign to most western Christians. We have to come back to the sources of evil, that is human evil. The first thing to understand is that evil spelled backwards is live. The opposition to life is evil. Anything that seeks to hinder, thwart, suppress, diminish the full expression of life is evil. People who persistently seek to control others in order to hinder their full expression of life are evil.
Well, in truly human fashion, we must be shown goodness and evil to understand it. The Almighty Father understood this and this is why His son was sent to this earth. Was it not Y’shua who said, “I am come that they might have life, and that they might have it more abundantly.” (John 10:10) I love the word picture of the abundant life and use it a lot with my patients. Abundant! That was the life of Jesus. He was a deviant, a strange man. Any protocol or convention for control he sought to dismantle. The only human freedom he chose to give up was to submit his will to his Father. He relished the social life with people, whether in the synagogue or on the mountainside. He relished life at its fullest, the weddings, the food, the wine, the fine oils and companionship. He sought to bring fullness into the life of everybody he associated with. He displayed remarkable resiliency in compromising his life to human conventions and rituals. His longevity was not his concern. His vitality was. He sought out the poor and the oppressed, and showed consistent distain for human puppets. If people were oppressed he showed righteous indignation to the oppressors.
Yet as hard as it is to define the goodness of Y’shua, it is equally hard to define the evil of someone like Hitler or Osama bin Laden. In the biblical sense, the Tzaddik or the righteous person, like Enoch, Joseph, Daniel and James the Just and the evil persons, like Balaam, Amalek and Esau have similar qualities. They are both possessed on the extremes on two sides of a spectrum. The righteous ones are possessed by God and the Holy Spirit and the evil ones are possessed by the Belial, Satan and the forces of evil. The culmination of the conflict between good and evil is that all people engaged in this battle between good and evil will be possessed. When we are called to be the servants of the living God, that servitude is slavery, yet a slavery that in response to our free will. We cannot choose freedom. We can freely become servants of God. To do so, we must respond fully to God’s will and His command. The paradox is, by choosing to be servants of God, we become free.
How would we identify a person who is evil. The psychological sciences have been reticent to look and analyze evil, for many reasons. For one reason, it is uncomfortable to be in the presence of evil and not to many psychiatrists have been willing to put themselves to the task.
Why bother. On the other hand, people who are evil have no interest in being analyzed, much less being helped. When you are revolted and uncomfortable about being in the presence of a person, you are probably in the presence of human evil. There is a natural revulsion to evil, a feeling of disgust. Crimes against society like the hijackers who made humans and airplanes become missiles at buildings in which thousands of humans were killed, gives evil a megalithic image. Stalin, Hitler, Jack the Ripper, Milosevik, Hussain and the bin Ladins in our society give the specter that to be evil, you must do it big. Big evil is noticeable. Kill a few thousand people, commit a little genocide, torture a few people, plot out your victim for ritual murders, serial killing are all actions of people who have gone over the brink. Strange as it may seem, almost all of them grew up lives similar to most ‘normal people’. The facts are they chose to do evil and evil over and over in their lives, in a striking consistent and persistent way, that eventually they crossed the path of no return.
The most consistent profile of an evil person is narcissism. This is simply self-absorption. We would typically call this person selfish, inward seeking, and greedy. They are takers in society, seeking to take for their own good, without the reciprocity of giving something in return. They are willing to gossip or character-assassinate another person in order to enhance their own position in society.
We accept narcissism in children and call it childish. But an adult who remains childish or self-absorbed looses all consideration for others, their welfare and has no place in his life for a higher goal or calling from God.
The evil person, rather than a person who does evil, is a narcissistic or self-absorbed person in an even more pathologic state. This human state was called ‘malignant narcissism’ by Eric Fromm in ‘The Heart of Man: Its Genius for Good and Evil. This type of evil is ‘willful evil’. It is portrayed by an unsubmitted will. The God-submitted person says, “Thy will, not mine be done.” Truth is when you believe in a higher calling, which is not manipulative by your own self-will and one, which is not used to dominate other people’s will.
Yet the problem of evil does not lie in the will itself. Great people in this world are ‘strong willed’ and equally so the very evil people. There is a vast gulf between ‘willingness’ and ‘willfulness’. This is the challenge of parents daily in raising their children. The willful failure of submission is what characterizes malignant narcissism. This is the story of Satan, Cain, Nimrod, Esau, and Judas. Why? Because they are people who live a lie.
As M. Scott Peck, in his inspiration and insightful book, A People of the Lie, stated, evil people hate the light of scrutiny and self-examination. It is this scrutiny that exposes them and penetrates their self-deception. To submit to the process of self-examination is suicide. And so they will go to excessive length to appear the best person in their social circle or to re-create their society to fit their deviant behavior.
They are experts of disguise. The fake smile which covers their distain, the smooth talk which covers up their fury, the hug that is superficial, the velvet glove personality that covers the fist of anger. As experts of disguise, it is so difficult to ferret out their maliciousness
What are the hallmarks of an evil person?
Outside the truly righteous, which by the way is very rare, and the truly evil, most of us live a life on a continuum. We are good, we are beautiful, and occasional we are evil. What God threw into this mix is ‘free will’. We have a choice and free will is a reality. While we have free will, we do not have freedom. “There are only two states of being: submission to God and goodness or the refusal to submit to anything beyond one’s own will – which refusals automatically enslaves one to the forces of evil. We must ultimately belong either to God or the devil.” Y’shua portrayed this paradox when he said, “Whosoever will save his life shall lose it. And whosoever shall lose his life, for my sake, shall find it.” (Matthew 10:39, 16:25, Mark 8:35, Luke 9:24) Or as C.S. Lewis wrote, “There is no neutral ground in the universe: every square inch, every split second is claimed by God and counterclaimed by Satan
To live in a world of evil is one of self-destruction. The leaders are evil and the inhabitants of the land become evil themselves. Here we see the land, whether it is Lebanon, Syria, Gaza or the Land of Israel, if evil shepherds are in control of the power of their government, then their land will be set for self-destruction or control by a neighboring power. Can we not see today the reason for the West Bank being outside the control of God’s chosen people?
11:7 – So I fed the flock for slaughter, in particular the poor of the flock.
I took for myself two staffs: the one I called Beauty, and the other I called Bonds; (Bands or Unity) in some translations) and I fed the flock...
The drama of Good Shepherd, bad shepherd as portrayed by Zechariah came to one conclusion, there is no Good Shepherd. So the Lord of Hosts will now come in with His great compassion and feed the victims of the incinerary wars within the land. Here now is another great mini-drama. He gives his last portrayal of mercy and justice upon the land. This depicts the merciful hand of God, with His concern even for the peoples of the enemies of His chosen people. He will seek to mold these people as the potter molds the pots of clay, with Grace and Destruction. Destruction? What is that? The translation of the Bible calls it Grace and Union (NIB), Grace and Bonds (NKJV), Grace and Bands or Unity (KJV and NEB). Why the divergence of translations?
NO’AM, the first staff is better translated PLEASANTNESS and KHOVLIM, the second staff is better translated DESTROYERS. (I really question Bands here being called UNITY). Pleasantness and Grace are close enough, however.
Rashi says these two staffs (by the historical interpretation) were Jeroboam and Rehoboam and therefore the FLOCK was the Northern Kingdom before their exile. Jeroboam promised to lead them pleasantly but Rehoboam told them he would flog them with scorpions (I Kings 12:11) according to Rashi.
Concerning the first staff, which is called “Beauty”, the only two other places in scripture besides this chapter in Zechariah is this the form of the word Beauty (Hebrew, no’am, Strong’s 5278) used in this context. Let us look at these passages.
Psalms 27:4: “One thing have I desired of the Lord, that will I seek after; that I may dwell in the house of the Lord all the days of my life, to behold the beauty of the Lord, and to inquire in his temple. For in the Time of Trouble, He shall hide me in his pavilion: in the secret of his tabernacle shall he hide me; he shall set me up upon a rock and now shall mine head be lifted up above mine enemies round about me: therefore will I offer in his tabernacle sacrifices of joy; I will sing, yea, I will sing praised unto the Lord. ”
Psalms 90:17: “And let the beauty of the Lord our God be upon us: and establish you the work of our hands upon us; yea, the work of our hands establish thou it.
The First Staff, Beauty:
The meaning of the first staff, “Beauty” or No’am (Strong’s 5278), is splendor, agreeableness, and grace. This depicts the merciful hand of God, with His concern even for the peoples of the enemies of His chosen people. He will seek to mold these people into a population that also will reflect the splendor, agreeableness and grace of the Lord.
Who is the beauty of the Lord? If we are to dwell in the house of the Lord in order to behold this Beauty, who is He? During the time we are beholding this ‘Beauty’, we will be hidden in the ‘pavilion’ of the Lord, or the ‘secret of his tabernacle’, in which the Lord of Hosts will lift us up out of harms way by our enemies. When will this be, during the exiles of Israel or of Judah? No. It will be during the Time of Trouble. Yes, God’s chosen people will behold the “Beauty’ during the last days, at the End of Times in the tabernacle of the Lord. Take this literal, take this symbolically, take this spiritually, what does it mean?
Let us now analyze the first staff, Beauty. This moves us back to the Sefirot of the Worlds of the Divine, a mystical concept of the Jews that embodies their image of the world in which their God, the One and Only, the Almighty, the Lord of Hosts, Ein Sof, the Unseen God resides. This is the World of the Divine.
In this world of multi-dimensional attributes of HaShem, the Lord of Hosts, He resides as the Crown or Keter of all life and all creation. He is the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end, the One and Only. Unique to this relationship of attributes is the unique place in the World of the Divine, where the Crown, Wisdom, and Understanding, those attributes of the Almighty Father which belong to Him and Him only. They stand like a pyramid, or the capital of the front of a majestic building. Three attributes, One God. He is the Monotheistic God.
Yet, there is a mystery, for these three attributes link to a fourth attributes, which stand in the center, the body of the World of the Divine. This is called the Tiferet, or Beauty. Here now we have a link. The tabernacle of the Lord is the World of the Divine. It is the Throne of the Living God, where the Shekinah Glory radiates in all its brilliance. Did the Lord not say, He will gather his people, like the mother hen gathers her chickens under her wings?
Notice, together these four attributes form a Tetramagram. Where have we heard this word? Yes the tetramer, YVHV, is the hidden and mysteries name of God, the name, which cannot be uttered by any Jew until the messiah comes and reveals himself to them. This is the name, which symbolizes the Godhead itself.
It is important to notice that there are two poles, each of them at opposite sides of the Sefirot. The Pillar of Severity sits on the right hand of God. Streaming down the pole of Severity is Understanding, Judgment/Strength and Reverberation/ Glory. Is this not where Y’shua has been sitting, since his resurrection, on the right hand of the Father? It is Y’shua, who is to bring understanding, and then bring judgment when he returns as King of kings and Lord of lords, and then redeem all the saints in their glorified bodies to the Throne of Glory.
On the left side of HaShem, is the Pillar of Mercy. Streaming down this pole is Wisdom, Mercy/Greatness and Eternity/Greatness.
Balanced beneath the Emotional forces of Judgment(Strength) and Mercy(Greatness) yet above the Action forces of Reverberation(Glory) and Eternity (Victory) is where the Tiferet, also is called Beauty resides.
Here in the center of the World of the Divine, where the Beauty is seen in the midst of the Tabernacle of the Lord, though not presently recognized by orthodox or mystical Jews, is where I believe the pre-carnate Christ, Y’shua resided as a member of the World of the Divine and sat with His Father in council at the creation of this earth. Balanced between the two poles at the extremity of the Sefirot, is the Pillar of Grace or Clemency. This is the pathway of salvation. “For by grace are you saved.” It truly is a gift of God and can be given only by Y’shua, the son of the Living God. It was the role of Jesus to draw all men unto him and to pull them up the pathway of the Pole of Grace.
Aligned totally along the Pole of Grace, below God the Father, the Unseen and Unfathomable One, is the Daat or Knowledge. This is the veil which shields all creation from the presence of the Heavenly Father. When the Lord of Hosts chooses to reveal Himself, it is the Daat, the Holy Spirit, who opens the veil and transmits the emanations of the Almighty. Below the Daat resides the Tiferet, called the Beauty. Here is Y’shua before He came to this earth in the human form of Jesus. Here he was the pre-carnate Christ, the son of God and the focal point, the energy vortex in which all rest of the worlds of creation were made.
Do you have the picture? The concept of the Christian Trinity was imbedded, by the revered sages of Judaism, within the deepest and most mystical concepts of the Hebrew Godhead. Yet it is not a triune God or a tri-Theistic God. It is one God, YHWH with three emanations. Here within the Tetramagram, JHWH, we can visualize God the Father, as the King and the Crown, God the Holy Spirit as the Veil or Daat, and God the Son, in the spirit form of Beauty and later incarnated into the human form of Jesus, the Nazorean, the son of Joseph. Was Jesus divine? Yes, and He stood at the fourth corner of the Tetramagram.
Was it not the purpose of the entire temple services and the spring festivals of the Lord, but to describe and portray to the Hebrews the incarnation, the first coming, of Y’shua (Jesus) the Living Torah or the Torah in the flesh? Was it not the fall festivals of the Lord that gave the Hebrews a literal account of the last few days on earth before the second coming of the Y’shua, as King of Kings and Lord of Lords?
Let us look at one more image, Christ our High Priest, portrayed in the Book of Hebrews. During the End of Days, Christ will represent his people as their high priest in the heavenly temple of the Lord. During the Day of Atonement, the day when the high priest entered the Holy of Holiest, he carries with him, the blood of the goat for atonement and sprinkles it over the mercy seat of the Ark of God. In the last and final judgment, the last Yon Kippur, we see Christ our High Priest, standing before the Veil of the Holy of Holiest. Here, the son of the Living God, stands before the Holy Spirit, the Daat, the curtain or funnel of Knowledge. The Holy Spirit opens and reveals to the Son of God, the majesty of the Lord of Hosts, sitting upon His Throne, represented by the Ark of the Covenant and surrounded by the Archangels of God. It truly can be said, “As above, so it is below” The festivals of the Lord given to the Hebrews revealed over and over the details of the first and second coming of our Lord Y’shua.
The Second Staff - Bands:
Now, let us look at the second staff called “Bands”, bonds, Union or Unity, we find that this truly is a unique word, used only once in scripture in this context. The meaning of “Bands” or chevel/ kheh’-bel, (Strong’s 2256) is a rope wound tightly or twisted, a noose, cord, pang, destroyer or destruction, portion, region, snare, sorrow or a group or company tied together or in the throes of a parturition. This “Bands” does not have the significance of being a force of unification, but rather one of separation and destruction.
Here with the two shepherd’s staffs, Grace and Destruction, that the Lord of Hosts feeds the flocks. The second staff, Destroyer is represented as a snare, a twisted noose which brings sorrow and destruction. Why would the Lord of Hosts be using both of these staffs to feed the lambs and why was He feeding them? We shall look at this in verse 14.
11:8 – I dismissed (cut off) the three shepherds in one month. My soul loathed them, and their soul also abhorred me.
Here now are three evil shepherds. Within one month (literal), they will either die or their power and rulership will cease. These three rulers have usually not been identified, yet in this modern era of present day prophecy, one wonders if we are seeing the prophetic look at the leaders of Lebanon, Syria and possible the leader of Jordan. Remember in chapter nine, the king of Gaza would be cut off. This gives us the idea that Yasser Arafat will be the first leader in the mid-east to exit the political scene.
With the culmination of the Afghanistan terrorist scene of action, the war against terrorist is about to expand to other lands. The Mediterranean Fleet is stationed off the coast of Lebanon and ready to enter the Bequa Valley to clean out the terrorist camps there. Yet all roads lead to Syria, who harbors most of the terrorist headquarters in the Middle East. Yet, it is the lands of Lebanon, Basham and the Jordan valley that will be opened for settlement by the House of Joseph.
Good point. I agree according to an interpretation based on current events. Rashi brings the kings slain by Jehu all in the same month. (II Kings 10:11)
The Tribal Inheritance of Israel – SDA Bible Commentary
Jehu, the son of Jehoshaphat, played a mini-drama that was enacted out in ancient Israel. Elisha had just returned from Damascus, where he had prophesied that Ben-Hadad, the king of Syria would die and Haziel, his chief minister would become the next king. He then went to Israel and anointed Jehu to be the next king of Israel and gave him his mission and role to eliminate King Joram of Israel, the son of Ahab, who with Ahab’s Phoenician wife, Jezebel, brought the whole land of Israel under the state religion of Baal. Was it not the great prophet, Elijah, who stood up against Jezebel, on Mount Carmel and there the prophets of Baal were destroyed. Yet within a few years, the oppressive religion of Baal once again covered the land. In the city of Jezerel, the king of Israel was nursing his wounds that occurred in battle with the Syrian king, Haziel. There, he was visited by Ahaziel, the king of Judah. That same day, Jehu killed both kings, and then all the seventy sons of King Joram, plus the entire house of King Ahaziel of Judah who were going to visit with the children of King Joram of Israel. In one last fatal blow, Jehu proclaimed that he would worship Baal more fervently than Joran and summoned all the priests of Baal to a big feast in the House of Baal. During the festivities, the entire priesthood of Baal was destroyed. Even so, Jehu did not follow after the Lord, but still worshipped the golden calves of Jeroboam that were in Bethel and Dan. Because of Jehu’s sin, what was the outcome of this drama in living history?
In 2 Kings 10: 32, it says, “In those days the Lord began to cut Israel short; and Hazael (king of Syria) smote them in all the coast of Israel; from Jordan eastwards, all the land of Gilead, the Gadites, and the Reubenites, and the Manassites , from Arner, which is by the river Arnon, even Gilead and Bashan.”
Is it not a coincidence that the lands to be restored in the end of times, the ‘land of Gilead and Bashan” which were inhabited by the tribes of Gad, Reuben and Manasseh, as portrayed in Zechariah nine and ten were initially taken away from Israel, because of the sins of Jehu and the kings who preceded him. Let us remind ourselves that these lands were taken away because of the evil shepherds who ruled over Israel and Judah. In the end of days, it appears that these evil shepherds will be the reverse, those that rule over the former enemies of Israel. It also appears this loathing was mutual between Hashem and the evil shepherds of these lands. This is reverse prophetic fulfillment. The former lands of the Children of Israel will be restored back to them.
11:9 – Then I (the Lord of Hosts) said, “I will not feed you. Let what is dying die, and what is perishing perish. Let those that are left eat each other’s flesh.”
The sad reality is, when the Lord of Hosts withdraws his protective force from the earth, even His enemies, who also are protected by the Lord of Hosts, will perish in self-destruction. This has been described as the wrath of God, but in reality it is God withdrawing His protective power.
11:10 – And I took my staff, Beauty, (Pleasantness) and cut it in two, that I might break the covenant which I had made with all the peoples. (nations) ,
By the historic analogy, this indicates the House of Israel was cut off from covenant .
The first staff, which represents the heavenly role of Y’shua, was a role of covenant relationship with his people. Yet there were two types of covenants, the Noachian covenant which include all the children of Noah, or all the peoples of the world, and the Abrahamic covenant, which include the children of the son of the promise to Abraham, the children of Isaac.
Yes, another look suggests that this covenant was with the ‘all the nations’ not just the House of Israel. May we suggest that because the peoples in the land of Lebanon, Syria and Jordon resisted the Good Shepherd, the Lord of Hosts, and refused his guidance, then the Lord God’s commitment to feed, care and spare these people’s came to an end and this time the covenant was broken by the Lord. I’d have to say this interpretation is a stretch.
Are we to suggest that the covenant broken with the House of Israel with their exile into Assyria could only be reflecting a broken covenant with Israel in that day only?
11:11 – So it was broken on that day. Thus the poor of the flock, who were watching me, knew that it was the word of the Lord.
When the Lord removed his protective grace and unifying force in the land, destruction came upon the people. Does God intervene in the affairs of all mankind? Does God only deal and intervene with His chosen people. It is firmly my belief that all men, of all faiths, nationalities and persuasions are being summoned to a relationship with HaShem. The Apostle Paul in Romans 9-11 calls this the time of the gentiles, a time that all the people of the world are drawn to the loving relationship with the Almighty Father. It takes a spiritual sensitivity to watch how God deals with the nations of the earth. A case in point, Osama bin Laden has now been recognized by most inhabitances of the world as an evil person. Yasser Arafat, known by many as the Father of modern day terrorism, for many the jury is out. Is Arafat evil? Yes. He is self-absorbed, selfish and a taker in society. The god of Arafat comes from within him. When Arafat was recently criticized by bin Laden, he came unglued. He was not to be outdone by another seeker of terrorist fame. Arafat has mastered the art of covertly scape-goating especially Israel for his own selfish perception of life. He is especially destructive as he seeks to preserve the delusional image of his own self-perfection. What a master of trying to preserve a public image of respectability, yet it only hides desire to hate and seek revenge. Will Arafat willing submit himself to the Lord of Hosts? No, rather he is being the archetype of the demonic possessed people who will be apart of the coalition forces that will surround Jerusalem with the Antichrist in the final battle of Armageddon. Arafat is a person of the lie.
He seeks to create a nation, not by building from the ground up a homeland for the Palestinians, where they can be self-sufficient and a productive people in the nations of the world. Rather he seeks to steal, bribe, extort from Israel and all the nations of the world, a nation, which no Arab or Palestinian has ever sought before, and have no legitimate legal claim except possibly the land along the Gaza Strip.
Consider the fact that every time Yasser Arafat sets foot in the city of New York, a disaster strikes, one has to consider, does the protective hand of HaShem withdraw from the city when Arafat steps into the city? The most recent was the crash of American Flight, which disintegrated in mid air and landed in Queens, New York, just about the time Yasser Arafat was to speak at the United Nations. Are the disasters, which seem to cluster around New York, part of God speaking as the United Nations continues its building of the end time Babylon and the soon expected One World Order?
Did you notice the day the Northern Alliance entered the capital city of Kabul, as the Taliban forces retreated to the south? The people were rejoicing, the woman were taking the shawls off their heads and the men in broad daylight were cutting their hair and shaving their beards. The wisdom in the land many times lays with the collective wisdom of the peasants, the ordinary people. They are not driven by ambition and listen to the heart. When the Lord of Hosts breaks his covenant with the people, the oppressed people know that these sayings come as the literal word of the Lord.
When the exile of the Northern Kingdom occurred, the people realized what had come to pass. The fact that Zecharyah uses the past tense here is also telling since this exile occurred before his prophecy
Also the Redak brings that the covenant was nullified on the day that King Josiah died since the nations ruled over the three shepherds who succeeded him and they plundered, spoiled and slew and exiled them.
Kara (don’t know much about this commentator but will find out more) understands this day as the day the Ten Tribes were exiled. If I did not go with a current events interpretation, I would agree.
To be consistent with our present model of interpretation of Zechariah, let us reaffirm one thesis. All prophecies given by HaShem in all the past history of Israel were but mini-dramas of the End of Times. During these last days, all of the prophecies will be reenacted in their final form at that time.
Let us suggest that the final unification of the House of Judah and the House of Ephraim (Joseph) will not be one of smooth simple unification with all the power of God’s unifying forces. Let us remember, there are evil shepherds in the Land of Israel, and the House of Joseph will also harbor many leaders, or shepherds, who are seeking a land for their own personal gain or to force their religious ideology upon the Torah believing Jews in the Land.
The reunification of the two houses will be messy, with a lot of conflict and God will need to destroy a lot of national, religious, and cultural barriers. Let us assume that a big influx of the House of Joseph, are peoples who have truly forgotten their Hebrew heritage. Let us assume that many of these Josephites or Ephraimites are followers of Y’shua, as their messiah. They know and love Y’shua, but they do not know how Y’shua fits into the spiritual life and culture of the Judaic-Hebrew way of life, the way of Torah observance. Yes, there will be room for a lot of conflict during these days.
We are not looking for just one people, the Children of Jacob. We are looking for one people who have given up all their pride, self-centeredness, arrogance, spiritual self-righteousness, or in essence their evil ways and are now willing to give themselves totally over to their God, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.
11:12 – Then I (the Lord of Hosts) said to them. “If it is agreeable to you, give me my wages; and if not, refrain.” So they weighed out for my wages thirty pieces of silver.
Here is the poetic reference to the Good Shepherd as he purifies and unifies his people in the last days. Is this the workings of HaShem, the Lord of Hosts, or possibly is it through His son, Y’shua? Is this the workings of a true spiritual leader in the Land of Israel, a Torah observing Prime Minister or the inauguration of the first High Priest in the Third Commonwealth of Israel? When the people refuse his leadership, he resigns and asked for his wages.
We have to keep in mind that the Prophet speaks the desire of Hashem. His “hire” is that the people remaining from Judah, REPENT and OBEY the mitzvoth (commandments). If they do so, Hashem will not cut off those who remain from Judah and will be their Shepherd. If they do not repent, Hashem will leave them to their own fate. This is conjecture on my part, but I would say that CONTEXTUALLY, this payment represents their commitment to Hashem to be his servants.
I agree, the Lord of Hosts withdraws Himself after the return of the House of Joseph. It is now man’s turn to proclaim his allegiance. Will the Jews and the Josephites (Joes) seek to align themselves with their God with mutual acceptance of love? Will they bring with them their resentments and animosities that have split the Jews from Christians throughout the centuries? This decision will have to be made freely by their free will. The Lord of Hosts accepts the free will of mankind, yet this time, He asks for a decision.
The Lord of Hosts asks for His wages as He withdraws. For what reason? He wants to see their allegiance. Will it be to themselves and the barriers, dogma, restrictions, and religious exclusiveness that has separated them for almost two thousand years? Yes, the Lord of Hosts wants His hire and lets them set the price
So the Lord of Hosts is given thirty pieces of silver, the price of a common slave. Yet this wage was called a princely sum or a goodly price. (vs.11:13)
It truly is a desire of all people yearning for the culmination of this earth’s history to see a union between the House of Judah and the House of Joseph that is without conflict, either physical or spiritual.. Remember, this the doing of the Lord of Hosts, when even the spiritual leaders in Israel today, even the revered rabbis of the Orthodox Judaism
11:13 – And the Lord said unto me, “Throw it to the potter” “KEEPER OF THE TREASURY” – that princely price EDER HA-YEKAR (stronghold of Glory) they set on me. So I took thirty pieces of silver and threw them into the house of the Lord for the potter.
Was not the potter one of the lowly professions in the ancient world? Yet it was Y’shua who said, “I am the potter and ye are the clay.”
I really question the translation “POTTER.” The Hebrew is HA-YOTZER. Spelled HEY-YOD-VOV-TZADE-RESH. The “keeper of the Treasury” is very similar HA’OTZER (spelled HEY-ALEPH-TZADE-RESH). The first has the YOD, the second the ALEPH.
NONE OF THE HEBREW COMMENATRIES TRANSLATE THIS WORD “POTTER”. THIS TRANSLATION APPARENTLY STEMS FROM A CHRISTIAN PRESUPPOSITION THAT THIS RELATES TO THE MONEY JUDAS RECEIVED FOR BETRAYING Y’SHUA WHICH WENT TOWARD THE PURCHASE OF THE POTTER’S FIELD.
Since this amounts to a “ransom” OR REDEMPTION for their collective soul, it SHOULD BE PAID TO the Temple Treasury. I do see an analogy to Y’shua’s ministry in this, however, but in the context of the ransom (redemption) for the House of Israel, since here the ransom is clearly for the House of Judah. Secondly, that ransom is symbolic of Y’shua’s followers REPENTANCE and OBEDIENCE to Torah as in this case.
What of the Potter’s field analogy? I think that in the final analysis it is nothing more than evidence of proof texting, which we have seen before (my tape series on errors in the New Testament). The translation “goodly price” is also stilted to reflect this theological presupposition. The “stronghold of Glory” is clearly the TEMPLE, which was stripped of its GLORY
Let us look at these two words. Keeper of the Treasury, called Owtser in Hebrew, (Strong’s 214), suggests a depository, armory, cellar, garner, storehouse, treasure house. On the other hand, potter, called Yatsar in Hebrew, (Strong’s 3335) has the meaning to squeeze into shape, coming from the prime root, Yatsa, meaning to mould into a form, such as a potter, to determine or to have purpose.
There are still marked similarities between these passages and the Good Shepherd, Y’shua. He was rejection by the Sadducees, the ‘bad shepherds of Judah’ and upon his betrayal by Judas, Judas was paid thirty pieces of silver, which he in turn cast the money back into the treasury house of the temple, the ‘stronghold of glory’.
11:14 – Then I cut in two my other staff, Bonds, DESTROYERS that I might break the brotherhood between Judah and Israel.
Breaking in two the other staff, called Bonds or Destroyer, has only one purpose, to break the brotherhood between Judah and Israel. Bear in mind, since 702 B.C., there has been no brotherhood between the House of Judah and the House of Israel, which is the same as the House of Joseph.
Whereas, the grace of Hashem was withdrawing from the inhabitants of Lebanon, Syria and Jordan, Hashem also removed the unifying forces between Judah and Israel. Why? Is it not the purpose that the Houses of Judah and Israel be reunited again at the end of times. What is the purpose of bringing the House of Joseph back into the Land of Israel with her expanded borders to include Lebanon, Basham and Gilead only to have this brotherhood broken again?
This had direct application in Zechariah’s day, as the return of the House of Judah from Babylon was only a partial return as many remained in Babylon because that is where they were securing their fame and fortunes. On the other hand, the House of Israel remained in exile except for a few families who aligned themselves with the House of Judah. The brotherhood between the two nations remained broken and it remains so to this day.
It is my opinion that the “unifying forces” were long removed as evidenced by the increasing animosity, enmity and vexation between these two families leading tot he split, civil war and separate exiles. It there was a unifying effort, it occurred at the time of Yehu, who was supposed to kill the northern king and reuniter Israel with Judah but as we know, he killed the kings of Judah, too!
This is what made his acts in the Valley of Jezreel, so infamous!!!
Two Models to the Unification of the Houses of Judah and Israel
We have two models to work with now. The first model, will be the literal and historic return prior to this moment in the Zechariah textual history in which the House of Judah, the present day Jews will be accompanied with an even larger influx of the returnees of the House of Joseph/Ephraim, representing the whole house of Israel. This influx will come from Assyria and Egypt and if the research from the British Israelites is correct, millions of Americans, British, Welsh, and others from the nations of Europe; Netherlands, Belgium and other countries will rediscover their genetic and spiritual lineage.
The second model suggests, that the union of the House of Joseph is represented best by the strong bonds and mutual relationship between Israel, the House of Judah and the United States and Great Britain, the House of Joseph. There are many people within the world who believe that the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh represent these two countries.
This was seen in the 2001 air strikes against Iraq and currently is seen in the United States’ and Britain’s leadership in the War against Terrorist in Afghanistan with George Bush, President of the United States and Tony Blair, Prime Minister of Great Britain and their defense, many times alone of the existence of the Nation of Israel. The bond of these two leaders with the Nation of Israel is one of the strongest in recent years. Will this bond be broken in which American and Britain will sever their ties with Israel and the brotherhood relationship be broken?
IT IS CERTAINLY AN OMINOUS SIGN. The least this alliance could have done was to warn Israel in advance of this strike so we could prepare for retaliation from Iraq. Luckily it has not come yet, but even as I write this, the U.S. and Israel are conducting joint military exercises in the Negev with PATRIOT MISSILES!! This, we are being told, is a big coincidence, but nobody believes it. I hope you are wrong about the severing of the alliance, however.
Rather, I look at it this way. HISTORICALLY, the staff of the DESTROYER was to DESTROY the hope of unity in accordance with Hashem’s plan unfolding to bring back the Assimilation with the nations and remedy the bread of Shame associated with the gift of Torah and Israel. When the staff of the DESTROYER is broken, the UNITY can occur!!
Here are the two models. Model number one suggests a literal and physical return of the House of Joseph prior to the date of this passage. This is making one assumption. The Book of Zechariah is a literal and sequential history of the last days on earth. For this to occur and with the current political events that are occurring in the middle east, a potential scenario may look like this.
September 11, 2001 airline suicide bombings of the Twin Towers in New York City and the kamikaze airline hit on the Pentagon becomes the wake up call for the world that the days of slumber and spiritual lethargy are over. The newly inaugurated president of the United States, George Bush, the first president elect to use the mantle of Christian morality as part of his presidential campaign, dons now the mantle of moral indignation against the al Qaida and Osama bin Laden and initiates the first world war, the War against Terror, in the 21st century.
The country of Afghanistan within one month was under the worst aerial assault by the entire power of the United States Air Force, including the Stealth Bombers in decades. The Northern Alliance patiently awaited their time until the military infrastructure of the Taliban warlords had been destroyed. When the Northern Alliance finally made its move southward, within one week, 70% of the country came under the opposition forces with the Pushtan tribes in the southern sector of Afghanistan joining forces against their former oppressive leaders.
Within the second month, the tribal leaders of Afghanistan were meeting to decide the fate of the future of their country. Ramidan, the month long religious fast of the Moslems, with the approaching snow of winter which will bring the population home to the remnants of their country while the Taliban are holed away in mountainous cave retreats preparing a long war of guerrilla warfare.
With the de-escalation of the War against bin Laden, who still remains at large, the Allied Forces turn their attention against the nations of the Middle East who harbor terrorists. As promised by President Bush, all nations who harbor terrors will be dealt in the same manner as Afghanistan.
Well, who is next? The world pundits speculate that Iraq will be the next nation to feel the wrath of the Allied Coalition against terrorists. As one of the foremost nations of the world training terrorists groups with camps set up to train in biological, chemical and even nuclear weapons of mass destruction, they even had a training camp with a 727 on how to hijack and commander a commercial airline for use as a weapon of war.
What we do know from Zechariah 9:1 is that Damascus in the land of Aramea, now the present state of Syria, God will establish himself, during an era when the “eyes of man shall be towards the Lord.” Has there been a moment in recent history in which men from all nations of the world, men of all faiths, event the most secular of men, turned their eyes to the Lord after the collapse of the Twin Towers. In modern geo-political history, the city of Damascus has not been under the influence of the Lord and Syria has been probably the most anti-Israel state in the area since the birth of Israel as a nation. Yet, it is written, “The burden of the Lord is against the land of Hadrach (Lebanon) and will rest upon Damascus (Syria) – for the eyes of men and all the tribes of Israel are on the Lord.” (Zechariah 9:12)
Lebanon will cast a ‘wary eye’ and the region will be struck down by fire. (Zechariah (9:2-3) Gaza (Gaza Strip) will ‘writhe in terror” and the ‘king shall be vanish.’ (Zechariah 9:5)
Whatever the outcome, the lands of Lebanon and Syria and parts of Jordan will become land to be repatriated by the House of Joseph. It is also written, “I will…save the house of Joseph. I will restore them because I have compassion on them…The Ephraimites will become like mighty men… I will signal for them and gather them in….I will bring them to Gilead and Lebanon and there will not be room enough for them. (Zechariah 10: 6-10 , parts) Is it not a coincidence, just prior to the return of the house of Joseph, we are introduced to the return of the Latter Rain and the mighty workings of the Holy Spirit upon the land?
Now after this, we now deal with the good and the bad shepherds in Zechariah 11. We must understand, there have throughout all the ages of the earth, good and bad shepherds, what is the point of it now? Well, maybe HaShem is now saying, this is the end and now until the end of the ages, all mankind will have to either follow the good or the bad shepherds.
From all appearances the House of Joseph will move back into the land and what do we have, one big happy family? Remember, everyone is coming with his own expectations. The Messianic Christian Israelites will carry their expectations, the secular Israelites who has just found his identity plus the Torah observing Israelites, who is just returning back to his homeland.
Are we seeing what could be a civil war? Will this be a war of ideology between the House of Judah and the House of Israel? Let us not forget, both houses are following their own pathways, and guess what, HaShem wants them to follow Him, not their own self-righteous pathways. They must give up their own expectations and be willing, even blindly to follow the will of their Lord.
HaShem works in mysterious ways. Sometimes it takes a death in a family to bring real family union. It may actually take civil war to bring real brotherhood and union of the tribes of Jacob’s children. Out of destruction comes union.
11:15 – And the Lord said to me, “Next, take for yourself the implements of a foolish shepherd.
Hashem, now directs the Prophet Zechariah to play the role of the final evil shepherd, who will preside over the Land of Israel. This evil shepherd will not be the same as the three shepherds that had been dismissed or destroyed earlier.
11:16 – For indeed I will raise up a shepherd in the land who will not care for those who are cut off, nor seek the young, nor heal those that are broken, nor feed those that still stand. But he will eat the flesh of the fat and tear their hooves in pieces.
This truly is an evil shepherd, a shepherd for the future and his evil will be so apparent to those who still have spiritual eyes and moral sensitivities. This Evil Shepherd will be the opposite of the Good Shepherd. He will refuse to visit his flock, search out the youth of the land, nor provide a unity of healing, or to care and feed the poor. Yet, he shall eat the flesh of the land, tearing and gouging it in pieces. Is this the Antichrist?
The last shepherd in the land of Israel before the coming of Y’shua is the one who will create the abomination of desolation. If Jesus is the Good Shepherd, then who is the Anti-Good Shepherd? He will seek to sit on the throne of the Most High. (the Holy of Holiest). This will be the Antichrist.
In the literal time sequence of this text, this event will still be in the future. The House of Joseph will be united with its brother. Civil war in the land will tear away the barriers of animosity, hatred, and jealousy between these two families. This time there will not be a split, two separate nations and eventually separate exiles. The lesson of spiritual union with HaShem and His son, Y’shua will have been learned and the new heart will be given to them. Yes, this civil war will lead to a real union of brotherhood and the establishment of the true marriage relationship with HaShem.
It is certainly foolish for JUDAH to ignore its responsibility re: reuniting with JOSEPH especially when Joseph is needed to give JUDAH the victory over the House of Esau and JUDAH is trying to fight that battle without the needed spiritual and physical resources.
The Land of Israel will be unified, the temple will be built and peace will reign throughout the land. Then the power of this evil person, the Antichrist, will come to Israel to win their allegiance to the brotherhood of all peoples and all nations. It will appear as though the millennium is about to be inaugurated, not by the will and power of HaShem, but by the clever negotiations of political and spiritual leaders. To seal their union with the greater brotherhood of the world coalition of nations, the False Shepherd will be invited to the Temple of the Lord to worship the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. This evil shepherd will be the direct representative of Satan himself, yes even possibly Satan’s own son. Here we will see ‘malignant evil’ in its rawest form. At this moment, the Antichrist will seize the incense and make his way to the Holiest of Holies to establish his seat on the throne of the Most High God.
Why, will the people of the world, not be repelled by him if he is so evil? It is fundamental to real human nature to be repelled and abhorrent of evil. For years, compromise after compromise by the citizens of the world to accommodate an increasingly complex and controlling world empire of greed and possessions, plus the power and control it will need to mold all nations, societies, nationalities and religions to its own imperial goals. Accommodating oneself to a little evil on a daily basis will finally create millions of followers and adherents that are amoral and seek their own selfish desires and political goals. We see this daily in the Palestinian cities of Israel. Their hearts are empty, leaving open the door for demonic possession. Watch closely, we are seeing little vignettes of the passion and hatred of the nations that will surround Jerusalem in the days prior to the Second Coming of Jesus.
The empire of Constantine the Great will be revisited in a more sinister and powerful way. Freedom of thought and action will be trampled and any who desire even in the sanctity of their own homes to follow the oracles and commandments of HaShem will be viewed as enemies of the empire. Nations will be crushed and millions left homeless in the name of morality and righteousness. Who will stand in the way of the Antichrist? Only those, who follow the commandments of HaShem and have the faith of Y’shua.
11:17 – “Woe to the worthless shepherd,
Who leaves the flock!
A sword shall be against his arm
And against his right eye;
His arm shall completely wither,
And his right eye shall be totally blinded.”
Here is a dirge for the Antichrist. Hashem will reserved a special judgment for the evil shepherd for abandoning those under his care. The role of the ideal ruler is as a servant of the people. The worthless ruler tramples the rights and freedoms, spiritual and physical, of his those under his custody and care.
The right arm is the active arm and the right eye is the active intake of learning and knowledge. To take away the right eye and the right hand and leave that arm completely withered, suggests that the Antichrist will be left destitute, powerless and in political and spiritual darkness. What is left for him? The Lake of Fire.
The mystic sages call the eyes “Jerusalem”. Those eyes certainly will dim until the reunion is completed. Ben Yosef
And that will be in the millennial kingdom, under the kingship of Jesus, the King of kings and Lord of lords.
Jerusalem, A Cup of Trembling
The Burden of the Lord Against Israel
I will Make Jerusalem a Cup of Trembling
A Cup of Trembling
The Nations of the World Tremble
The Restoration of the House of Israel
The Latter Rain and the Houses of Judah and Joseph