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Messianic Seal with Aramaic text: “For the Oil of the Spirit”


The Star of David, the

Seal of the Hebrew Nazarene Ecclesia 

Study into the Archeology and of the Hebrew Nazarene Synagogue  

Called by Christians ‘The Apostolic Church

in the House with the Upper Room’

Commentary by Robert D. Mock M.D.

August 1, 2004


 Part One



The Story of Tech Oteeoos, the Greek Orthodox Monk

 The Essene Quarters, the Tomb of David and the Nazarene Synagogue 

The Star of David and the Seal of the Nazarenes

The Silver Baptismal Certificate of the Nazarenes

The Archeological Artifacts of the Jewish Nazarenes

James the Just, the Tzaddik and High Priest of the Nazarenes

The Symbols on the Seal

The Origin of the Star of David

The Star of David and the Messianic Calling of Yahshua ben Yosef

First Century Jewish Artifacts of the Jewish Nazarenes in Jerusalem


The Story of Tech Oteeoos, the Greek Orthodox Monk


If we adhere solely to the history of the Brit Hadassah (New Testament canon) by reading only the Acts of the Apostles, we learn very little about the life of the Nazarene congregation much less their role in religious politics in Judea. From the resurrection of Yeshua in 30 CE and the destruction of Jerusalem the forty years between 30 and 70 CE, the ministry of the Hebrew Nazarenes in the Book of Acts is centered between the relationship of James the Just, the nasi or high priest of the Nazarenes and the Apostle Paul as the Apostle to the Gentiles. 


It wasn’t until about 1990 that a new discovery was made near of what is now felt to be the synagogue of the Hebrew Nazarene Ecclesia on the hill called Mount Zion.  It was reported by Ludwig Schneider, editor of Israel Today in Jerusalem, to Reuven Efraim Schmalz and reported in the small book called “The Messianic Seal of the Jerusalem Church.”  Here is the story by Ludwig Schneider.



“In 1990, I became acquainted with Tech Oteeoos, a Greek Orthodox monk in his nineties who lived by himself in an obscure, dank and foul smelling, small building in the Old City of Jerusalem.  I was drawn to the ancient monk whom I visited several times. I kept my distance until he could emerge into the fresh air.  The human stench of the dwelling kept me from exploring its interior.


One day, I believe it was on my third visit, Tech Oteeoos showed me, to my absolute amazement, several ancient artifacts which he had excavated at a nearby site, in the vicinity of the building traditionally known as the original church founded by James the Just, the brother of Jesus.  The central feature of each piece was a hand executed rendition of the symbol, either etched into or painted upon the surface. 


The Descent of the Holy Spirit Room  


Needless to say, I was fascinated by both the symbol and its obvious significance.  It was clear to me that God Himself had laid before me a long-forgotten testimony informing the world about the true roots of the Church.


Several visits later, the old monk finally lured me into the interior of his foul smelling dwelling. It was there that I saw for the first time his collection of about 30 to 40 beautiful and varied pieces, all bearing the three-part symbol.  As I stared at this treasure in wonder, my host carefully selected eight of the pieces which he later, during a subsequent visit, presented to me as a gift. On this occasion, I excitedly photographed the eight artifacts which had been set aside for me. 


But an even greater gift from this dear messenger of God lay in store for me.  During a subsequent visit, after he had, as usual, devoured my chocolate bar gift, he took me by the hand and led me to the nearby site where he had personally excavated his entire collection.  The special place was an obviously very old Jewish mikvah located near the Tomb of David


After we had climbed over an unimposing fence, the old man led me down the traditional seven cosmic stairs leading to the place used for ceremonial cleansing.  We proceeded past this place, and entered a catacomb that continued on into the quickly fading light. After what seemed like a short distance, just before the first bend, my ancient monk friend and benefactor was excitedly pointing out his special gift to me on one of the walls, a perfect rendition of the three-part symbol etched into the stone


In my initial excitement, I rushed back to the priests of the monastery to report this incredible find. I was shocked by the audience I received.  They rebuffed me, refused to answer my questions about the “Seal” and locked me outside the monastery gate.


I was overwhelmed by the great significance of the find, and its meaning to the church and the entire world, and I determined with confidence, that I should bring these pieces to the attention of the Israel Museum so they, in turn could promulgate their incredible message to the world.  Thus I called the curator of the museum and made an appointment. 


The curator was most friendly, even gracious; I was ushered into his office with the picture of the eight pieces, which he examined with careful and studied interest.  He then told me, matter of factly that the museum already had seen other artifacts with this very same three-part symbol that had come to them from other sources which he did not specify.  The curator assured me that the museum had firm plans to have a special exhibition of these artifacts and their unique symbol, and that he would make an announcement regarding them to the world press in the near future.  This was in 1990.  Quite frankly, I am not surprised that these artifacts or the three-part symbol, with which they are adorned have as yet – as far as I know, never emerged, nor has any information about them.  Israeli officialdom, perhaps, was afraid of what the world might think if the truth became known: the early church was Jewish and the original believers in Jesus were Jews. 


You can’t image in my frustration over this seeming suppression, but even more my sorrow when I returned for a somewhat delayed visit to my dear benefactor Tech Oteeoos.  Tearfully, I learned that he had died, and irrespective of his earlier promise that the rest of the pieces were to be mine, his dwelling had been completely emptied, and all of his remaining treasure had vanished


Despite the passage of years, I couldn’t stop thinking about the importance of the symbol and the need to present it to the world.  It was thus in 1996 that I opened a small gift shop in the Old City where I sold traditional tourist gift items, to which I added several products bearing a simple artist’s rendition of the ancient symbol. 


Within days, I was threatened by Orthodox Rabbis who insisted that I remove these ‘evil, heathen’ objects from my shop.  By now, although none had any idea about the profound significance of their purchases, tourists had begun to enthusiastically buy my symbol adorned souvenirs in sufficient quantity to entice my competitor shops (some owned by orthodox Jews) to produce and offer for sale, copies of my unique products. 


This unfriendly competition wasn’t to last long.  When I refused to remove these items from my shop, the orthodox gathered outside in large numbers and stoned the place, breaking my windows; not once, but several times.  I finally gave up, and closed my shop less than a year after it had been opened, taking little satisfaction from the fact that the other shops had also soon removed the symbol-carrying products from their own shelves.  Presumably, between the combined efforts of the Israel Museum and the orthodox rabbis, the precious symbol proclaiming the true origins of the Church had vanished from public view. 


My earnest prayer, is that the truth about the Jewish origins of the Christian Church will be made known throughout the world so that all might know:  Jesus was a Jew, the early (first century) church in Jerusalem was attended exclusively by a sect of Essene Jews who had accepted Jesus as their Messiah, and the entire church in the world today has been built upon this precious Jewish foundation.”  (Reuven Efraim Schmalz and Raymond Robert Fischer, The Messianic Seal of the Jerusalem Church, Olim Publications, PO Box 2111, Tiberias, Israel. pg .iv-vi)


The Essene Quarters, the Jerusalem WallsTomb of David and the Nazarene Synagogue   


Here in this story of the Greek Orthodox monk, Tech Oteeoos who found many wonderful archeological artifacts, the dynamics and vibrancy of that Jewish messianic community takes on new life. It is one thing to have historical documentation that our ancient spiritual fathers did live and worship in Jerusalem but to see real archeological artifacts gives this story a living reality.


Essene Quarter in first century Jerusalem


Today there is a grotto going down into the summit of Mount Zion, which has a steel mesh cage with iron bars over it. The landscape around is deserted shielded by the spires of the Jerusalem pines. Within this hole, closed off to the most persistent pilgrim to the city of Jerusalem is what is believed to be the “sacred grotto” of the Hebrew Nazarene Ecclesia in Jerusalem. 


Nearby in the heart of the south-western quarter of Jerusalem at the time of Yahshua was the Essene Quarters, the private Jewish sect with a mysterious past that most scholars now feel nurtured the ministry of John the Baptist.  It was this Essenic mystic who came ‘crying in the wilderness’ saying “Prepare ye the way of the Lord”. 


Here also by the southwestern corner of the city of Jerusalem was the Essene Gate and directly north near the Domition Abbey was the reputed tomb or cenotaph of David and the House with the Upper Room.  Also near the current Zion’s Gate on the Old City Wall was the house of Caiphas and adjacent along the western wall south of the Hippicus Tower was Pilate’s Praetorium. 

At the region of the traditional tomb or cenotaph of David, the area is now pocketed with numerous baptismal pits called by the 1st century Jews, mikvahs that were used for their ritual baths of purification.  In a certain mikvah pit in 1967 were found pottery shards, pottery and stone fragments and oil lamps all dating to the 1st and 2nd century.  This was a “no-man’s land”, abandoned by both Jews and Moslems.  On these pottery fragments were unique designs not seen in any other archeological sites in Israel or any other place in the ancient world.  These artifacts included bowls, flasks, oil lamps and a marble brick, shaped like an oil stand, that had an unusual seal that was etched or inscribed surrounded by the words in ancient Aramaic, “La Shemem Ruehon” or “For the Oil of the Spirit.” 


The Star of David and the Seal of the Nazarenes

Marble Anointing Oil Stand with inscription: “For the Oil of the Spirit”


Here we see what appears to be the Messianic Seal of the Jewish Nazarenes.  At the base of the seal is an engraving that looks like the ‘tav’, the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet. The “tav” was an equal armed cross written upright like (+) or sideways (x).  It has been found in early Semitic inscription at the Sinai peninsula and also is known in various scripts besides modern Hebrew to include, archaic Hebrew, Canaanite, Phoenician and Aramaic.  After the exile, the square letter “Assyrian” script was used in Hebrew but the archaic Hebrew was never abandoned and appeared on Judean coins during era of nationalistic revivals as late as 132 BCE.   This sign can be found on burials or ossuaries on the Mount of Olives in first century Judaism.  (When did the ‘tav’ marks start to look like a cross)


If you look above this symbol of the ‘tav’ there is a triangle pointed down.  In the center of a double based triangle is the body of a fish and there the ‘tav’ is a finely etched cross (+).  Suddenly we begin to recognize the symbol of the early Christian Church used so valiantly as a secret symbol by the followers of Yahshua in the catacombs of Rome.  Here was the symbol of the ‘fish’ which is used today to represent the Christian Church in which a tav/cross (+) was placed in the region of the eye of the ‘fish’.   


Above the ‘fish’ is another symbol, the menorah, which was imbedded as the symbol of temple Judaism.  At its base was also a triangle with the point facing up.  There was no other iconography that represents temple Judaism as much as the great lamp stand called the menorah. 


Yet the most unusual symbol was in the center, the blending of the menorah with the triangle base facing up and the ‘fish’ with a triangle shaped tail facing down.  Yes, in the center we recognize the ‘Star of David’, the Magen David that is the most visible symbol of the modern day Nation of Israel. 


The Silver Baptismal Certificate of the Nazarenes


It all started in 1963 when a Catholic archeologist, Emanuel Testa was translating an Aramaic inscription on a thin 3” x 1” silver plate that was found by the Bedouins in the deserts of Judea south of Jerusalem.  It was found with several Herodian oil lamps that were dated to the first century.  On this silver plate were sixteen lines which read in part, “For the Oil of the Spirit”.  It was attributed to the era in which anointing was being reclaimed as a religious rite by the ‘elect’ of Israel.  To the archeologist, the passage held a strange resemblance to a passage in the “Sefer Ya’akov (Book of James) to the Twelve Tribes in the diaspora”


Book of James (Ya’akov) 5:14-16 – Is someone among you ill?  He should call for the elders of the congregation. They will pray for him and rub olive oil on him in the name of the Lord.  The prayer offered with trust will heal the one who is ill - the Lord will restore his health; and if he has committed sins, he will be forgiven. Therefore, openly acknowledge your sins to one another, and pray for each other, so that you may be healed. The prayer of a righteous person (tzaddik) is powerful and effective


On this silver plate archeologists believe was one of the ancient ceremonial calling cards or certificates of belief in Yahshua (Jesus) that was given as a memento of the rites of passage in the mystical ritual of baptism.  Here also was archeological evidence of the Hebrew Nazarene Ecclesia started in Jerusalem whose high priest or nasi was the eldest brother of Jesus (Yahshua ben Yosef) who was called James the Just (Ya’akov ha Tzaddik). 


In the midst of the Jewish area of mikvah baths, the earliest followers of Jesus were not only baptized in flowing water but were also baptized by the Holy Spirit (Ruach HaKodesh). Within these same rites of baptism (healing of the soul) and prayer for the sick (healing of the body) was the ritual anointing with olive oil of the sick, the infirmed and the new convert to the family of Jesus. 


Inscription: “For the Oil, of the Spirit”


It was believed that at this site in the Judean desert that this silver lamina, like others found in Syria and Lebanon, were inhabited by the Essenes and Nazarene communities. In addition to being used in baptism, it was placed in the mouth of the departed believer as a laisser-passer or pass card in confirmation of their faith in salvation by the blood of Yahshua (Jesus) and the hope of a future resurrection.  Here in the final moments of life, the departed confessed their sins while being anointed with olive oil.


A similar experience was the rite of ‘dying with Christ” in baptism by letting your old body die in the mikvah baptismal font and resurrected to a “new life with our Lord”.

After the immersion in water, the new convert was anointed with oil in a baptism of the Holy Spirit.  So we see these lamina certificates of baptismal beliefs were given as a memento to the new believers who ‘arose out of the grave’ to a new life with Christ.


The Archeological Artifacts Jewish Nazarenes


It was not until 1990, the editor in chief of the Israeli magazine, Israel Update, Ludwig Schneider became friends with an elderly Greek Orthodox monk, Tech Oteeoos, who lived a life of a hermit in Old Jerusalem.  It was here that he showed the editor a secret cache of artifacts excavated on Mount Zion near the site of the Upper Room or the Nazarene Synagogue in the years before the Six Day War of 1967.  Here he saw a most unique symbol engraved on these artifacts that blended a Jewish menorah at the top and the Christian symbol of Ichthus the fish at the bottom.  The symbiotic harmony of these two symbols gave them a third symbol:  the Star of David in the midst of the two. 

       +   The Symbols of the Menorah and the Fish


What do we make of this most unusual symbol?  Clearly it came from a people closely identified with their Jewishness and the temple culture of the first century.  It also came from a people who were closely identified with Roman-Greco culture in which the ‘ictus’ or ‘fish’ was identified with the Gentile Christians who accepted Yahshua (Jesus) as their Lord and Savior.  These people were united and their lives and destiny intertwined with each other. 


      =     The Seal of the Messianic Hebrew Nazarene Ecclesia


The history of the early Nazarene Ecclesia began with one of the most amazing charismatic moments in religious   history.  There in the Upper Room at Pentecost the early apostles of the risen Christ were worshipping in ‘one accord’ when tongues of fire fell on all the occupants of that room on Mount Zion.  This symbolized to them that the Lord of the heavens had sent His Shekinah or Ruach HaKodesh ( Holy Spirit) to confirm His presence within their midst.  It was here that the Greek and the Jews become one in Yahshua (Jesus).


Along with these sacred rituals came the confirmation that their salvation and forgiveness for sins came without the need of the ritual temple ‘sin’ offering sacrifice.  Here the Nazarene religious beliefs merged with the Essene and Zadokite doctrines in opposition to the temple animal sacrificial system


James the Just, the Tzadik and High Priest of the Nazarenes


With the Nazarenes, we are also introduced to the greatest tzaddik or righteous man outside of the Yahshua haMoschiach (Jesus the Messiah) that was known in the first century Judaism.  Here on this same mount, James the Just (Ya’akov haTzaddik) and the apostles of Yahshua established a Nazarene community that in social culture appeared to be like the Essene commune in Qumran.  It was a communistic community in which all believers shared common resources amongst themselves.  They had a Sanhedrin of the Nazarenes patterned after the Great Sanhedrin of Judaism in Jerusalem.  James the Just served as the nasi or high priest of the Nazarene sect of Jewish believers.


Three centuries later, the 4th century Christian historian, Epiphanius the bishop of Constantia, who despised the Jewish religion and all the various sects that surrounded it, made this statement about James the Just.  Read closely how cogently the enemies of Yahshua record historical information that is saved for posterity.


Epiphanius, Panarion 29, 3:9-4:3 – “James, called the brother and apostle of the Lord, was made the first bishop immediately. Actually he was Joseph’s son, but was said to be in the position of the Lord’s brother because they were reared together.  For James was Joseph’s son by Joseph’s first wife, not Mary, as I have said, and discussed with greater clarity, in many other places.  And moreover I find that he was of Davidian descent because he was Joseph’s son, and that he was born a Nazarite – for he was Joseph’s first-born, and hence consecrated.  But I find further that he also functioned as a priest in the ancient priesthood. For this reason he was permitted to enter the Holy of Holies once a year, as scripture says the Law commanded the high priests.  For many before me – Eusebius, Clement and others – have reported this of him.  He was allowed to wear the priestly mitre besides, as the trustworthy persons mentioned have testified in the same historical writings.”


Next to the first Nazarene Synagogue, the House with the Upper Room was their sacred baptismal mikvah.  At that site over sixty artifacts were uncovered by this elderly Greek orthodox monk. These archeological artifacts included a marble brick base which appeared to be stand for a vase that would hold a vial of anointing oil plus oil lamps and pottery fragments.  Also found nearby was a small pottery flask with the same seal. 


One of the amazing facts hidden in the epistles of James, Peter and Paul are evidences that creedal types, liturgical vows, hymns of praise and declarations of faith were recorded within twenty years of the crucifixion of Jesus.  They were also recognized as sacred in their sacred record, the Brit Hadassah (New Testament). These vows, hymns and declarations include the highest form of Christology and was also patterned after the Shema of Yisra’el:


Deuteronomy 6:4 – “Hear, O Israel: the Lord our God, the Lord is one!”


So we also can now imagine listening in the ancient Nazarene synagogues as these hymns of adoration were sung:


I Corinthians 8:6 – “For us, there is one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we for Him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things, and through whom we live. “


The Marble Anointing Stand and Anointing Oil Vase


True to their Jewish roots, they proclaimed adoration to one God, the God of the universes, yet the Nazarenes now testified within their communities that in addition to one God, there was also one Lord Jesus Christ. Their adorations of their Lord Jesus were also proclaimed in hymns of praise:


Colossians 1:15-18 – “He is the visible image of the invisible God. He is supreme over all creation, because in connection with Him were created all things, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones, lordships, rulers or authorities.  They have all been created through Him and for Him.  He existed before all things, and He holds everything together.  Also He is head of the body, the Messianic community.  He is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, so that He might hold first place in everything.”  (Jewish New Testament)


The story of the discovery of the archeological artifacts found in the mikvah grotto of the Jewish Nazarene Synagogue was coauthored by Israeli historian and artist, Reuven Efraim Schmalz and Raymond Robert Fischer, president of Olim Creative Products.  In their book, The Messianic Seal of the Jerusalem Church revealed for the first time since 135 CE the three-part symbol of the early Nazarenes.  For nearly two thousand years, this evidence has been buried by both Christian and Jewish orthodox leadership.  


The Symbols on the Seal


The Messianic symbol as stated combines synergistically the menorah of the Jews and the fish symbol of the Christians.  The menorah has been one of the most revered objects of the Hebrews.  Its image today is symbolic of the Holy Temple (Exodus 25:31-37).  With it comes the message of hope and salvation. With the number seven imbedded in its imagery, it depicted the number of perfection and its seven branches depicting the Tree of Life lit with the oil of the Ruach HaKodesh (Holy Spirit). This lamp stand also depicted the hope of restoring that ‘Tree’ in the Garden of Eden in the future New Jerusalem (Yerushalayim) as noted by the prophets of old.


The first menorah was made by the master craftsman under the influence of the Holy Spirit, Bezaleel (Exodus 37:17-24).  It was made by beating it out of one entire lump of gold.  This menorah was later put in Solomon’s Temple and surrounded by ten menorats that were six feet tall each.  Each menorah had seven olive-oil lamps that were lit each morning.  The recent discovery of an ancient and lost Tosefta called the Emeq HaMelekh, which was found in the genizah of the Cairo Synagogue, gives us pause.  Is it not our modern understanding was that these menorats were for the functional utilitarian purpose of providing light.  Yet at the same time, the beauty and exquisite design of the menorah suggests something more about an object ‘used for the glory of  God’. This Tosefta tells of the hiding of the sacred articles in Solomon’s temple prior to the destruction of the temple by Nebuchadnezzar.  In a wall in ancient Bagdat in Iraq, the Jewish priests hid a 49 lamped menorah encrusted it with upwards to 36,400 jeweled gemstones to await discovery at the time of the end.  The fact that the prophet Zechariah son of Iddo was one of the five entrusted guardians of these temple treasures give us reason to suggest that he actually saw this 49 lamped menorah and wrote about it in Zechariah 4:1-6, when he said


Zechariah 4:2 - 'I see a lamp stand all of gold, with a bowl above it.  The lamps on it are seven in number, and the lamps above it have seven pipes;


Today the menorah, from its divine origins, has become the official symbol of the State of Israel and the spiritual national life symbol of Judaism and the people of Israel.  It was Father Bagatti, who wrote:


Father Bagatti – “In reality for many centuries the candelabrum has been a symbol of the Jewish people. But in ancient times it was common also among the Judaeo-Christians.” (The Church from the Circumcision, pg. 202 quoted in The Messianic Seal of the Christian Church, pg 62) 


Is it any wonder that when John the Revelator in vision witnessed the twelve churches of Yahshua at the time of the end, he said?

Revelation 1:12-16 - “I saw seven gold menorahs; and among the menorahs was someone like a Son of Man, wearing a robe down to his feet and a gold band around his chest.  His head and hair were as white as snow-white wool, his eyes like a fiery flame, his feet like burnished brass refined in a furnace, and his voice like the sound of rushing waters.  In his right hand he held seven stars, out of his mouth went a sharp double-edged sword, and his face was like the sun shining in full strength.”


Here we see Yahshua standing among the twelve menorats.  Here we see also the imagery of the chosen ones who were to be the light of the world and the light to the Goyim (gentiles). They were also to be reflecting the light of the Torah and the righteousness One, the tzaddik Yahshua.  (Proverbs 6:23; 13:9; Psalms 36:9-10; 37:6; 119:105; Job 29:3; Isaiah 2:2-5). As Yahshua (Jesus) was seen as the Torah in the flesh or the most perfect depiction of the Torah, so also the menorah was a symbol of the Torah, the light of the Eternal One that shone throughout all the earth.












 of God







The Ichthus or Fish became one of the earliest symbols of the Greek Nazarenes who later first became known as Christians in Antioch. The date of the announcement of Yahshua’s birth could have possibly been proclaimed in the constellation of Pices (Fish).  It was this constellation that also heralded a new era or age and became the demarcation of the old days (BC) and the future days (AD).


The Greek name for fish was ICQUS (Ichthus) became a cipher that was used to give the name and identity of the Messiah of the Nazarene Jews.  Here we see the symbol of the Cosmic Christ whose life was centered on the Hashem’s (God’s) Pole of Grace now take on a new identity as the One who now claimed victory of life over death.  To the early Nazarene Christians (Gentile),  I-Ch-Th-U-S came to mean Iesus Christos Theon Uion Soter (ICTUS) or Jesus Messiah God’s Son Savior.  Here on the catacombs of the Gentile Nazarenes known later as the Early Christians, the fish became their hidden symbol of identity to their messiah, Iesus Christos (Jesus Christ) who was also known with their Jewish Nazarene brothers as Yahshua Moshiach.

In the TaNaKh (Old Testament), we find the word, dagah, the Hebrew word for fish, is used 34 times. In the Brit Hadassah (New Testament), the Greek word, ichthus, is used 29 times.  Yet none of these uses of fish in the entire Bible suggest that it was to symbolically represent Yahshua.  Yet at the same time, we see hints that when Jesus was feeding the multitudes with bread and fishes at that memorable moment by the Kinneret Sea, the bread and fish began to miraculously multiply so that all the people could be fed. 


Fish Symbol representing Yahshua ha Moschiach


Later the disciples were also invited to become ‘fishers of men’ (Matthew 1:17) which suggests that the followers of Yahshua, the Jewish and Christian  Nazarenes would also rapidly grow.  In the Hebrew, we know that dagah, in the feminine form not only means “fish”, but also “to grow, multiply or to increase.”  Here we find Yahshua as the head of the body of the Messianic Ecclesia, who was also represented as the “Bride” and also symbolized as a “Fish.”


It was Clement of Alexandria about 150 CE who was the first of the early Church Fathers who left us a written record of the fish when he recommended that his Christian readers use the fish on their personal seals.  He did not elaborate on fish symbol as it was well known one hundred years after the formation of the Hebrew Nazarene Ecclesia.  This fact is affirmed by the artistic use of the fish in the Roman monument Cappella Grecca and the Sacrament Chapels in the catacomb of St. Callistus in the early part of the second century.  In the catacombs in Rome the three most common symbols for Jesus were “the good Shepherd” (John 10), the “Vine” (John 15) and the “Fish” whose name became synonymous with Yahshua. 


The Origin of the Star of David


The initial use of the fish in the iconoclastic symbol of the Messianic Seal appears to have been on Mount Zion, in the Grotto and within the Nazarene Synagogue in Jerusalem.  It appears that the Christian use of the fish symbol was later purposely separated from the Menorah before being transported to the Roman Christian Church.  The Star of David then disappeared from use for almost fifteen centuries until it was resurrected as a strictly Jewish emblem.  The origins of the Star of David representing the messianic branch of orthodox Judaism, whose mother synagogue sat next to the Tomb or Cenotaph of David, was no longer known.  


The third symbol was the six pointed Star of David, called the Magen David or the shield of David was a symbol of the Jewish future hope of a Messiah when David, son of David would come to rule in the future Millennial Kingdom.  The star is formed by two triangles which according to Jewish philosopher Franz Rosenzweig symbolizes the covenant between God and his people; the triangle pointing down represent God reaching down in redemption.  It was this triangle that was attached to the symbol of Jesus, the fish. At the same time it depicted the triangle pointing up which was God’s people reaching up in acceptance of this redemption. It was this triangle that was attached to the menorah. It is this “Star” which now centers on the Israeli flag is known as the “star of redemption”. 


The first mention of a star in biblical prophecy is the prophecy of Balaam.


Numbers 24:17 – “There shall come forth a star out of Ya’akov (Jacob) and a scepter shall rise from Yisra’el.


This brings the concept of redemption and the coming of the Moschiach (Messiah) as a unity. So even in the ghettos of Europe and the Nazi concentration camps, the symbol of derision, the yellow star that each Jew had to wear was also a symbol of hope.  The ‘Star’ also became the early marker of the arrival of the young babe called by the angel, Emmanuel, and was the cosmic signal to the ever watching magi who scanned the heavens in anticipation of His birth. (Matthew 2:2) 


Matthew 2:2 – “”Where is the newborn King of the Jews? For we saw his star in the east and have come to worship Him.”


As the close of all prophecy in scriptures:


Revelation 22:16 – “I Yeshua, have sent my angel to give you this testimony for the Messianic communities. I am the Root and the Offspring of David, the bright Morning Star.” 


In the Brit Hadassah (New Testament) the “morning star” is used as a symbol for the second coming of the Messiah when he will inaugurate the end of the night and the beginning of a new bright day. (2 Peter 1:19; Revelation 2:28; 22:16)


Here the early Hebrew Nazarenes, in their blending of the Hebrew menorah and the Greek fish, came up with a symbol that was unique to the Hebrew Nazarene Ecclesia.  It is commonly recognized today that the six-pointed Star of David is a fairly new Jewish symbol.  Its rarity in early Jewish literature and art is verified by the fact that when art dealers and appraisers see a Star on David on a purported medieval painting, they suspect that this work of art is a forgery.  Yet we must not be so hasty.  The concept of the Star of David as we have now seen is very old, at least almost two thousand years old.  This symbol may have less identity to the King David than it does to King Yahshua (Jesus), who was recognized as the son of David.




Consider the fact that what we are seeing here as part of the Hebrew Nazarene Ecclesia in Jerusalem  is the oldest representation of the Star of David in Jewish history, art and iconography.  Let us then consider that this symbol that came out of the messianic sect of Judaism was formed by the union of the menorah and the fish.  Would it not suggest that the hidden meaning of the Star of David is that the study of Torah without the “Good News” will not reveal the Moshiach of the Hebrews?  Would it not suggest that in the life and ministry of Rabbi Yahshua (Jesus), who also affirmed that He was the ‘Son of God’, came to this planet as the anointed One with the messianic fulfillment of the Torah. Only in the spiritual atmosphere of perfect balance of the Torah in the TaNaKh (Old Testament) and Good News in the Brit Hadassah (New Testament) can the full revelation of the Moschiach (Messiah) be fully understood.  


The Star of David and the Messianic Calling of Yahshua ben Yosef


That the Star of David is associated with the Nation of Israel and Zionism is well accepted in geo-politics today.  That this Star of David was first symbolized by the Hebrew Nazarene Ecclesia of Jerusalem is now documented history. It only suggests that the glory of the future reign of Greater Israel will only come when the Nation of Israel recognizes its Moschiach (Messiah) as Yahshua ben Yosef (Jesus son of Joseph). 


The salvation of Israel will come when the Almighty One pulls the scales from the eyes of  His chosen ones, Jewish people, and they recognize that Yahshua ben Yosef was their own Son and their Moshiach (Messiah).  This also comes when Yahshua ben Yosef is accepted as the fulfillment of the spring festivals of the Lord.  This comes when the Jewish people realize that Yahshua ben Yosef lived, breathed and represented the true halachah of the Jewish people, showed them the true covenant relationship with His Father, portrayed to them what the true kingdom of HaShem (God) would be like.  This comes when the Jewish people accept that Yahshua ben Yosef came to this earth as the Agent of His Father, the Eternal One and became the most perfect representation of the Torah.  At that time, the citizens of the future millennial empire will be the Jewish Nazarene followers of this Jewish Tzadik (Righteous One) who unite in adoration with their Christian Gentile Nazarene brethren.  This will be the Day of the Moshiach (Messiah).  On that day, the Great Day of the Lord, the Star of David will once again represent its own: the Hebrew Nazarene Ecclesia of Israel. 


First Century Jewish Artifacts of the Jewish Nazarenes in Jerusalem


Eight of the Sixty Archeological Artifacts with the Messianic Seal found by

Greek Orthodox Monk, Tech Oteeoos



Go to Part Two

The Synagogue of the Nazarenes



The Hebrew Nazarene Ecclesia of Jerusalem

Antiochus IV Epiphanies and the Abomination of Desolation

The Last of the Zadokians

The Essenes and Kirbet Qumran

The Hebrew Nazarene Ecclesia in 55 CE

The Synagogue of the Hebrew Nazarene Ecclesia at Mount Zion

The Cenacle or the Upper Room


Return to Beginning




Links and Book Orders


Order – The Messianic Seal of the Jerusalem Church by Olim Publication

Order – The Messianic Seal of the Jerusalem Church and related Jewelry at Israel’s Harvest


Messianic Seal

About the Messianic Seal by Ari Levitt, Adat B'nei HaMelech

The Messianic Seal by Jane Diffenderfer, Messianic Home

Ancient Messianic Synagogue Seal by Evangelical Press News Service

The Most Ancient Symbol of Christianity – Reuven Schmalz

The Menorah, the Star of David and the Fish by Reuven Schmalz and End of Times Ministries

The Messianic Seal of the Jerusalem Church by Family Bible

The Messianic Seal by HalleluYah Ministries

Messianic Seal of the Early Church by Christianity Network

How Many Symbols do You See?  by Threemacs Jewish Roots of Christianity

Found the Seal of the Messianic Church by Tough Love Faith Web


Nazarene Ecclesia

An Anthropolgists looks at the Judeo-Christian Scriptures by Richley S. Crapo

How we Lost the Sabbath by The Bible Only

Jesus the Nazarene and His Jewish Followers by Scholomo

Jewish Remnant History by Elisheva Gamaliel

Christianity and its relationship to Judaism by JewishEncyclopedia

Moses’ Seat and Messianic Nazarene Yisrael by Rabbi Moshe Yoseph Koniuchowsky

Are the Nazarenes and the Ebionites  the only True Israelties?  By Christian Think Tank

What is Nazarene Judasim? By James Trimm

Nazarenes and Christians by Paul N. Tobin

Shomrai HaBrit-Keepers of the Covenant by G. Shapiro

The Early Nazarenes and Rabbinic Judaism by William F. Dankenbring

What is the Original Faith of the Apostles by Norman Willis

Who were the Nazarenes and when did they become Heretics – G Shapiro

A Response to Anti-missionary who claim that the Nazarenes never existed – by Messianic Apologestics