Catastrophes at the Time of the End
Commentary by Robert D. Mock MD
Since the days of Immanuel Velikovsky in the 1950’s when he wrote about the cyclical nature of major catastrophes in the Bible and other world myths, other scientific disciplines have begun to consider major catastrophes and extinctions as a part of the history of this planet. Some scientists have suggested that there is a cycle of mass extinctions, with a major die off every 26 million years or so. This would imply that there have been some 23 extinction events since the Cambrian, a figure, which is at the upper limit of most estimates. While they remain unsure of the total number, there is general agreement of the existence of 6 major extinction events.
When evidence began to show up in the Pemex wells in Mexico City, depicting the ‘smoking gun’ for the KT impact, the scientific community took notice. This included mineral evidence of shock metamorphism, depicting extremely high pressure and strain rates showing that the crystalline rocks in the basin melt zone rocks not found in volcanoes. Biostratigraphic information indicates that the structure was formed in uppermost Cretaceous rocks, consistent with a KT age. They also did Argon and uranium-lead age determinations that revealed that these melt rocks and the associated breccias matched tiny spherules of impact glass found within KT boundary deposits in Haiti and Mexico and the unmelted granitic fragments found in KT boundary exposures throughout western North America.
According to the geological theory, the era of the dinosaurs ended. That is not all. Scientists now believe this die-off occurred just before the breakup of Pangea, the landmasses on the super-continent on this earth. What is fascinating about this is that while the live bearing mammal-like reptiles that roamed the earth were killed off, the egg bearing dinosaurs were spared. American and Canadian scientists exploring the jungles of British Columbia show a sharp collapse in organic carbon, a marker of the productivity of plant life and radiolarians, the singe-cell organisms that serve as the major food source for marine life during this era.
According to short term Creationist sedimentologists like Art Chadwick the director of Earth History Research Center at Southwestern Adventist University at Keene, Texas, the evidence for the continental breakup occurred in the interior of Pangea and formed the opening basins of the proto-Atlantic Ocean. Chadwick has accumulated the largest data base of paleocurrents in the world. This includes 15,615 locations on the North American continent with over 500,000 measurements recorded in the strata layers. The results have documented the direction of water currents found in the various layers and strata in a given site of this continent.
It is Chadwick’s thesis that the breakup of the continental plate, the borders of the land masses and the timing for uplifts, mountain formation and other strata elevating events can be determined by a scientific examination of the rocks themselves. What they have found to date, the currents flowing across North America flowed in a stable southwesterly direction throughout the Paleozoic era. In the Mesozoic era, these same currents became quite scattered, shifting from a westerly pattern to a predominately eastern pattern. By the mid Cenozoic era, there were no consistent continental size currents flowing on this continent.
Finding the Sediment Strata for the Flood of Noah
According to Dr. Chadwick, the pre-Noachian flood geography of Pangea was in the Paleozoic era. This went from the Cambrian era according to evolutionary geologists at 500 million years ago (mya), to the Ordovician (430 mya) Silurian (400 mya.), Devonian (345 mya.), Carboniferous (285 mya) and the Permian period (245 mya). In other words, short date creationists are now taking the offense, creating geological models compatible with the Bible narrative of creation and the flood. The plant and animal life, the sediment deposition, the placing of the Paleozoic seas give us a geographical picture of the world of the pre-flood Patriarchs.
Also the findings from the sedimentary data suggest that the Flood of Noah occurred according to Chadwick in the next era, the Cenozoic Tertiary period and as predicted, the flow currents across the continent of North America changed from a stable southwesterly flow to a scattering of flow patterns in the early Mesozoic or the Triassic period. This represented the earliest breakup of the American continent.
The Super-continent called Pangea – drawing by Robert Mock MD
In the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous era, the flows began to move in a southerly and southeasterly direction. At the time of the KT extinction disaster, when the asteroid collided into the Yucatan are and the Gulf of Mexico was carved out, it was in the Upper Cretaceous era. This was the end of the era of the dinosaurs.
After this date, we see the typical sediments depositing in basins, such as lake and river beds, as no continental flow patterns are noted except the influence of the newly formed Mississippi drainage system.
Using our diagram above, what does this mean? At the western edge of Pangea, the sediment flow from the center highlands of the continent at the eastern end of the present Mediterranean Sea, would have been to the west-southwesterly direction. This concurs with the Biblical picture of the flow patterns of the Rivers of Eden.
Then the Flood hit the face of the earth and all the earth was inundated. The flow rates would rock back and forth depending upon the catastrophic changes that were being experienced during the time of the flood during the Jurassic era. The great forests of the Jurassic and pre-Jurassic era became more plains and arid areas after the flood. By this time the continents had ruptured but had not separated. The flow went from the southwest to the northeasterly area.
Then an asteroid impact hit this planet at the time of the Cretaceous-Triassic (KT) period. The Gulf of Mexico was carved in the crust of the earth, North and South American began to separate with the eruption of volcanoes along what would eventually be the mid-Atlantic rift. The tribes that had scattered from the Tower of Babel disaster and moved into the region of the Americas found themselves becoming separated from their own brethren, now literally across the widening ocean.
Paleomagnetism and Ocean Sediments as Evidence for the Flood of Noah
So we now are beginning to add a definitive picture. Evolutionistic tectonic plate geologists have for several years suggested that there was an era into which a proto-Pangean supercontinent called Gondwanan was the original supercontinent, while North America (Laurentia), Europe and Asia (Laurasia), and Russia (Siberia) were still roaming the globe in the Paleozoic period. The Biblical evidence is that the Garden of Eden was on one super-continent and the Rivers of Eden flowed out over the face of the earth. According to Chadwich, ‘the idea of maintaining a single Paleozoic supercontinent seems not too farfetched.”
Paleomagnetism is a modern science, which states that the earths past magnetic poles can be detected in the igneous rocks such as lava that is emitted from volcanoes and in the sedimentary deposits under the ocean. They state that an imprint of the earth’s magnetic field is preserved in the form of magnetic dipoles, found in the crystals of iron oxide, or magnetite, which are oriented to the earth’s magnetic field and indicate the magnetic field lines on the surface of the earth at the time of volcanic eruption or deposition in the oceans. Using a scientific instrument called a magnetometer, it is felt that the position of the ancient magnetic poles including the direction of the poles and the distance from the poles can be determined by an analysis of carefully oriented rock cores.
A third evidence is found in the ocean floors deposits. It appears that modern oceans contain no sediment anywhere older than the Mesozoic era. In other words, they do not contain fossils and marine life as found in the early Paleozoic era or the era before the flood. It truly does appear that we have new ocean and that the expanding zones are along the rifts of the mid-Atlantic as seen in the above models and along the Pacific-Antarctic, Indian-Antarctic rift systems, which runs contiguous with the Red Sea-Mediterranean rift. But what again along the Pacific plate? If this is a continent that has subducted or collapsed in the bottom of the Pacific Ocean, how could the Marianna trench be the collision of two continental plates, the Pacific and the Philippine?
Pliocene 2.5 _______________________________________________
Miocene 5.0 Earliest sediments on Ocean floor
Paleocene 55 _______________________________________________
Cretaceous 65 KT -Continent splits away-Tower of Babel
Mesozoic Jurassic 135 Flood of Noah
Permian 245 Last deposits before the flood
Paleozoic Silurian 400
Precambrian 580 PreCreation – salt water ocean
Once again, A Model for Creation and the Flood of Noah as proposed by creationist and sedimentologist Arthur Chadwich suggests that is in accord with how the Bible story was written. All the continents of the earth collapsed under the weight of the massive rain over the face of the earth. Whereas as 95% of the sediments found in the ocean basins are upper Cenozoic, the Miocene-Pliocene era, these could represent modern ocean formation where the molten magma under the continents is regenerating new land at the major ocean rifts, after the continents have broken away during the great Pangean breakup. Our present model suggests that this occurred after the Tower of Babel and the Abrahamic-Sodom and Gomorrah-Great Rift Valley in Africa formation about 1900 to 2000 B.C.E.
Now comes another question, did the dinosaurs and humans co-exist on the same planet? Maybe, says Chadwick, but they did not necessarily have to live at the same locale. According to his Garden of Eden Model, Pangea had a central highland, the Garden of Eden area surrounded by epicontinental seas, which were fresh water seas, then surrounded by ‘Marginal Highlands’, which contained the epicontinental seas. On these arid marginal highlands was an environment semi-arid and not watered by the rivers of Eden, according to Chadwick’s model is where most of the varieties of dinosaurs lived. Yet did they survive after the flood? Well it could be possible if the existence of the dinosaurs lasted until the KT asteroid impact in the Cretaceous period.
It was the Latin Orthodox Church which gave us the Latin Vulgate Translation of the scripture, which said,
Genesis 1:21 - "So God created the Great Dragons"... (The Latin Vulgate; 5th Century)
What evidence do we have of this?
In the mountain slopes of El Toro (The Bull) at Acambaro, in the state of Guanajuato, 175 miles north of Mexico City, a German hardware merchant, Waldemar Julsrud was riding his horse when he noticed a partially unearthed ceramic object with some hewn stones in July, 1944. Curious, he started digging and several ceramic and carved stones which he knew were unlike any of the archeological finds indigenous to his area: Aztec, Chupicauro, Inca, Mayan, Tarascan, Toltec or any other Meso-American Indian culture.
Waldemar was not ignorant of the archeological and cultural artifacts of his region for in 1923, he was the co-founder of the Chupicauro culture with Padre Fray Jose Marie Martinez only eight miles away. This Indian civilization was once a flourishing society about 500 BCE to 500 CE, almost a thousand years prior the Tarascan culture. Here at his feet was an archeological discovery that would dwarf the discovery of the Chupicauro civilization.
Waldemar hired a Mexican farmer, Odilon Tinajero, to dig the ceramic objects and was paid one peso (12 cents) for every complete figurine that he brought to him. In a matter of time the mansion of Julsrud Waldemar became “the museum that seared scientists.” Soon this mansion began to house a collection that eventually included 33,500 ceramic stone with some jade and obsidian knives.
These ceramic figurines, fired in open fire kilns, were made in multiple colors of clay and depicted many varieties of dinosaurs plus humans of many cultures: Africans, Asians, Eskimos, Egyptians, Sumerians, bearded Caucasians, Polynesians and Mongols, plus humanoids like the Bigfoot. Also they unearthed objects that appeared to have cultural traces to the ancient Egyptian and Sumerian cultures plus teeth from the extinct Ice Age horse, mammoth skeleton and a number of human skulls.
The clay figurines unearthed were made of clay and stone and were in various sized from inches to three foot statutes and dinosaurs over four to six feet long. Today the collection numbers over 30,000 objects, all unique to each other with no evidence of mass production, manufactured with molds, and each individually sculptured and designed.
The dinosaurs collection numbering over 2600 pieces have been identified as representing the following dinosaur species: duck billed Trachodon, Gorgosaurus, horned Monoclonius, Ornitholestes, Titanosaurus, Triceratops, Stegosaurus Paleococincus, Diplodicus, Podokosaurus, Struthiomimos, Plesiosaur, Leviathan, Maiasaura, Rhamphorynchus, Iguanodon, Brachiosaurus, Pteranodon, Dimetrodon, Ichtyornis, Tyrannosaurus Rex, Rhynococephalia and dinosaurs unknown to modern paleontologists.
Obviously the concept that humans and dinosaurs co-existed is controversial in religious circles, but to ask the orthodox community of paleontologists to put the geological time frame of dinosaurs in the era of historical humans would not only threaten all evolutionary concepts of time but could rewrite the history of early man and his struggle in a world of man and dinosaur together. Yet as noted above, Dr. Art Chadwick, as a world acclaimed sedimentologist, is willing to conceive of geological models that could include terrains for dinosaurs outside the normal habitations of man.
It was the late Dr. Ivan T. Sanderson, known world explorer searching for unknown or extinct animals and author of many zoological and cryptozoological books such as the Abominable Snowmen: Legend Come to Life, Animal Treasure, Caribbean Treasures, Invisible Residents and Investigating the Unexplained: A Compendium of Mysteries of the Natural World, shared amazement that the American dinosaur, the Brachiosaurus, unknown to the American public in 1955 was accurately represented in the Acambaro collection. As Sanderson stated:
Ivan Sanderson - "This figurine is a very fine, jet-black, polished-looking ware. It is about a foot tall. The point is it is an absolutely perfect representation of Brachiosaurus, known only from East Africa and North America. There are a number of outlines of the skeletons in the standard literature but only one fleshed out reconstruction that I have ever seen. This is exactly like it."
In 1999, Dr. Don R. Patton and Dr. Dennis Swift, dubbed the “Indiana Jones of Creationism” who searched the worlds for the evidence of the co-existence of man and dinosaurs, went to the Valley of Acambaro in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico. There about 180 miles north of Mexico City, by the permission of the Mayor, Secretary of Tourism and the Director of the Acambaro museum, they view the stored up collection in the Julsrud mansion.
At its largest, the collection numbered 33,500 figurines of which about 20,000 were indigenous to the El Torro region. While they were unwrapping close to eight hundred different figurines, they came upon a Iguanodon dinosaur figurine. This species was unknown until the 40’s to the 50’s. It was not until 1978 to 1979 when skeletons of adult Iguanodons were found with nests and babies. Clearly the idea of a modern forgery was ruled out for figurines unearthed thirty years earlier.
Waldemar Julsrud met an impenetrable barrier in the non-acceptance and the unwillingness of the scientists in the field of paleontology to investigate and scientifically verify or disprove the evidence of his collection. Already the discoverer of an ancient society, the Chupicauro culture, Julsrud postulated that these figurines came from an even older civilization of vast antiquity. Within the objects was evidence that the culture came from a woodland and heavily forested area. In the land today with a dry valley and desert terrain, geologists have found evidence of a large lake five to six thousand years ago which match the collection dug from the sand of an ancient beach of the lake. With the collection were fauna, flowers, plants and trees representing a woodlands, forested lake environment.
Unable to gain any scientific inquiry, Julsrud published his own book in Spanish, Enigmas Del Pasado, in 1947, in which he theorized that in an era of catastrophes that were radically changing the then known world, an ancient civilization buried these open kiln fired ceramic artifacts before their society was totally wiped out. Even more so, he made the radical suggestion that historical man had truly existed in an era with dinosaurs.
Here was an era that was a precursor to the Ice Age as speculated by modern geologists. Within this collection were animals or giant lizards that resembled the one-humped American camel of the Ice Age, Ice Age horses, images of ancient rhinoceroses and giant monkey figurines known to exist in South America in the Pleistocene era.
With these figures were teeth recovered that were identified in 1955 by Dr. George Gaylord Simpson, famed paleontologist at the American Museum of Natural History to be the teeth of an extinct horse called the Equus Conversidans Owen from the Ice Age. Within the Julsrud collection were two figurines of this same extinct horse and an image engraved on ceramic pots.
Finally in 1950 and American newspaperman, Lowel Harmer went to Acambaro and visited the site at El Toro and photographed Julsrud digging some figurines from beneath the Maquey roots. This same story was repeated again when a Los Angeles newspaperman, William W. Russell, came and also photographed the excavation in which to a depth of five to six feet tree roots were intertwined around objects that be every evidence were very old.
A Charles C. Dipeso of the Amerind Foundation in 1952 came to investigate and according to him in four hours he claimed to have investigated 32,000 specimens in the mansion and found that the figurine depressions that formed the eyes, mouth, scale to be new and sharp. Even though he personally claimed to Julsrud that the collection was genuine and wanted to illegally buy some pieces of Tarascan origin for his museum, he also claimed that a family living in the Acambaro made the figurines in the winter months, gleaning ideas from the ‘local cinema, comic books, newspapers or books from the local library.
It took the investigation by Francisco Aguitar Sanchaz, Superintendent of the National Irrigation Plant of Solis who said, "That on the basis of four years intimate knowledge of the inhabitants of the entire area and of archaeological activity there, he could positively deny that there was any such ceramic production in the vicinity."
In 1952, the Municipal President of Acambaro, Juan Terrazaz Carranza, issued an official statement (No. 1109) refuting Dipeso's allegation.
"This Presidency under my direction ordered that an investigation be carried out in this matter, and has arrived at the conclusion that in this municipal area there does not exist any persons who makes these kinds of objects."
Even though the Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia under the direction of Dr. Eduardo Noguera, the former Director of Pre-Hispanic Monuments, stated that the ceramic objects were of such a ‘fantastic’ nature that this must have been a hoax that was played on Julsrud. Even so, Dr. Noguera did admit and confirm “the apparent scientific legality with which these objects were found.” Waldemar Julsrud, always an optimist, was disappointed that the ceramic figures that were found were not to be accepted in his lifetime died without fulfilling his dream. His house was sold and his collection of pottery dinosaurs was put in storage.
Then along in 1956 came a Professor Charles Hapgood, who was the Professor of History and Anthropology at the University of New Hampshire. Professor Hapgood personally excavated dozens of figurines, including dinosaurs, with Earle Stanley Gardner a trained criminologist of Perry Mason fame. They excavated in places chosen to refute the ad hoc claim that Julsrud had manufactured his 37,000 artifacts. These included excavations under the hard packed dirt floor in the living room floor of police chief of Acambaro, a house built at least 25 years before Julsrud emigrated from Germany to Mexico. Here they uncovered 43 specimens like the controversial saurian images in the Julsrud Collection.
They excavated under masonry walls and roads that had been undisturbed for centuries and they found the typical Julsrud artifacts. Hapgood submitted samples for radiometric dating which was still in infancy stage with financing by Gardner and Andrew Young (inventor of the Bell Helicopter). These were sent to the Laboratory of Isotopes Inc in New Jersey for both C 14 and Thermoluminescent testing. The sample findings came back as follows:
Sample No. l:
(I-3842) 3590 + - 100 (c. 1640 B.C)
Sample No. 2: (I-4015) 6480 + - 170 (c. 4530 B.C)
Sample No. 3: (I-4031) 3060 + - 120 (c. 1110 B.C)
These radiocarbon dates made this collection of ceramics the oldest known in the Western Hemisphere. Charles Hapgood soon wrote a detailed description of his investigation in his book, Mystery of Acambaro.
It was in 1972 that an Arthur Young sent two Acambaro figurines to the Pennsylvania Museum for Thermoluminescent Dating under the director of Dr. Froehlich Rainey. The Masca Lab obtained dates for the thermoluminescent test at 2,700 BCE for the two pieces. Dr. Rainey sent a supplement letter dated September 13, 1972 to Arthur Young which stated,
"...Now after we have had years of experimentation both here and at the lab at Oxford, we have no doubt about the dependability of the thermoluminescent method. We may have errors of up to 5-10% in absolute dating, but we are no longer concerned about unexpected bugs that might put the whole system in doubt. I should also point out, that we were so concerned about the extraordinarily ancient dates of these figures, that Mark Han in our lab made an average of 18 runs on each one of the four samples. Hence, there is a very substantial bit of research in these particular pieces... All in all the lab stands on these dates for the Julsrud material, whatever that means in terms of archeological dating in Mexico, or in terms of 'fakes verse's authentic' pieces."
The University of Pennsylvania lab was then informed that the dinosaurs were part of the Acambaro Collection, they quickly retracted their data with the excuse that they found in the ceramics regenerated light signals and that the figurines were no older than 30 to 100 years old. One of the technicians at the thermoluminescent lab denied that any ceramics has produced any regenerated light signals. The implications that humans and dinosaurs co-existing were too great for modern scientists steeped in the ideology of evolutionary geology to accept.
Later samplings of Julsrud type ceramics were sent by John Tierney to Dr. Victor J. Bortolet, the Director of Research for Daybreak Nuclear Archaeometrics Laboratory for dating. This pieces received an upper limit age at 2,000 years old. In essence it invalidated the Masca report secondary claim that the figurines were 50 to 100 years old.
Then six samples of Julsrud ceramics with a different clay composition was sent to Ohio State University. Here internationally known experts such as Dr. J. O. Everhart (chair of the Department of Ceramics Engineering), Dr. Earle R. Caley, (one of the world’s more recognized archeological chemists) and Dr. Ernest G. Ehlers (respected mineralogist in the geology department at Ohio State University) teamed up to make a report. The report stated their expert opinion that the artifacts were not made in modern times and therefore not a fraud. When they were notified that they had authenticated Julsrud artifacts, there was suddenly academic silence. Over and over the Julsrud experiment has demonstrated the lack of integrity and professionalism in the geological and archeological community for failing to authenticate artifacts in a non-biased atmosphere what are called ‘Ooparts’ or ‘Out of place artifacts’. The bias against short term creationism is overwhelmingly strong yet on the other hand the scientific barriers are one by one collapsing.
John Tierney would later charge that the Smithsonian Institute and other authorities in archaeology conducted a campaign of disinformation to discredit the Julsrud collection. Accessing the file of the Smithsonian Institution by the Freedom of Information Act, Tierney was able to confirm that the case file on the Julsrud collection was missing.
Of recent a Missouri scientist, Neil Steede, who calls himself a ‘contractual archeologist”, went to investigate these claims. He was recognized as a paid consultant by museums and other institutions to evaluate collections with controversial claims. Independent and with no vested interest, his opinions though controversial were recognized as being non-biased. The dating of the clay figurines was confirmed but did have known flaws in the dating and analysis, such as carbon dating recognized as the date the ceramics were made or the clay was formed by nature. Though neither confirming nor denying the authenticity of the find, he did confirm on a video production, Jurassic Art, produced by BC Production, that either human history has a greater antiquity than accepted by geologists or dinosaurs existed in a more recent history that merges with historical humans.
The ICA Stones of Dr. Javier Cabrera
In the city of Ica, Peru is the private collection of a Dr. Javier Cabrera. It has over 11,000 carved stones of which 300 which depict the unusual description of dinosaurs and their interaction with humans. These stones were immediately pronounced as fakes and modern fabrications by the archeological community.
The strange rosette skin pattern on the stones and dermal frills were dismissed by the paleontologists until the 1990’s when fossilized dinosaur skin was discovered that showed this same rosette pattern and the dermal frills were scientifically documented by Luis Chiappe when he wrote about a sauropod dinosaur found in South America. The engraved rosettes patterns were eventually found to be a pattern off of ancient dinosaur skin patterns. As Luis Chiappe stated, Luis Chiappe and colleagues discussed certain sauropod dinosaur embryos found in South America: "The general skin pattern consists of round, non-overlapping, tubercle-like scales.... A rosette pattern of scales is present in PVPH-130" (Chiappe, et al., 1998, p. 259).
Thought by many to be artifacts of the Inca Empire from 500 to 1500 CE, there is one documented report by an Indian chronicler, Juan de Santa Cruz Pachachuti Llamgui, who wrote the 1570’s that at the time of the Inca Pachachuti Empire that many carved stones were discovered in the Kingdom of Chinca in the province of Chinchayunga. Many of these stones were taken back to Spain, but were never scientifically studied.
There was also a description of a Spanish Friar who was traveling in the area of Ica in 1525 who made an enquiry about reports of engraved stones with strange animals on them. (The Ojo, Lima Domingo Newspaper, Lima, Peru, October 3, 1993 cited by Genesis Park.
Descriptions of the Engraved ICA Stones
· Top Left – A man fighting or feeding a sauropod dinosaur. Dermal frills and rosette pattern are noted on dinosaur.
· Top Center – A man riding on the back of a triceratops dinosaur and appearing to be smoking a pipe.
· Top Right – This is a burial stone with engraved images that are found on the Nazca Plains of Peru.
· Center Left – A man with a knife defending himself against two Tyrannosaurus Rex type dinosaurs. Rosette patterns are noted on these dinosaurs also.
· Center - Carnivorous type dinosaur with short grasping front limbs lifting a man off the ground.
· Center – Right – A man attacking a sauropod dinosaur with an axe or the dinosaur is kissing the man’s axe.
· Bottom Left – A Sauropod dinosaur with dermal frills and a human with two large lizard type creatures, one apparently biting him from behind.
· Bottom Center – A Sauropod dinosaur with dermal frills with a human dangling with his legs in the dinosaur’s mouth.
· Bottom Right – Five dinosaurs: a Sauropod, a two horned Ceratops, a Stegosaurus, a Pterosaur and a carnivore type dinosaur eating a fish.
It was in 1966 when a Dr. Javier Cabrera, a local physician, started collecting these stones after one was given to him for his birthday. They were being collected by local Indians from a river bank. His collection eventually had over 15,000 stones, as small as an orange or as large as a basketball, in which had every form of carving and etchings. The etchings, among many other animal and fish pictures, depicted carved pictures of dinosaurs such as the triceratops, stegosaurus, apatosaurus, and human using the flying pterodactyls as flying machines. On other engraved stones, we can identify a hunter killing dinosaurs plus scenes of open-heart surgery, cesarean section birth surgeries plus humans looking into the heaven with an object like a telescope.
Composed of a hard mineral stone called andesite, these engravings would have been difficult to carve with any primitive tool. When found they have an natural patina, or natural varnish, that is created by bacteria over hundreds or thousands of years. The dark varnish is etched away exposing a lighter mineral underneath. What is interesting is that these engraved lines have been around also hundred or thousands of year because the grooves of the lines are also now becoming layered with a varnish patina.
A brisk underground trade began with stones being sold to foreign interests and illegally exported out of the country, while on the other hands, individual Indian entrepreneur artists were beginning to sell modern fakes.
Employed at the University of Lima, Dr. Cabrera began his research and soon found that similar depiction of long-necked saurian type creatures were displayed on pottery on pottery in the Museum of Lima. Also there were beautiful tapestries from the Nazca tombs, dated to 700 CE, with patterned repeated on the tapestries of a dinosaur pattern. It was the discovery that by Paleontologist Stephen Czerkeas, who stated, “Recent discovery of fossilized sauropod (diplodocid) skin impressions reveals a significantly different appearance for these dinosaurs. The fossilized skin demonstrates that a median row of spines was present... Some are quite narrow, and others are broader and more conical." (Geology, "New Look for Sauropod Dinosaurs," December, 1992, p. 1,068 cited by Genesis Park.
Descriptions of the Engraved ICA Dinosaur Figurines
· Top Left – Two samples of fossilized dinosaur skin showing the circular rosette pattern clearly visible. This pattern is depicted on the ceramic dinosaur figurines as well as on the ICA burial stones.
· Top Center – Photo of Dr. Javier Cabrera holding a triceratops ceramic figurine. This is one of hundreds of different dinosaurs depicted in his collection.
· Top Right – This is a depiction of a man subduing or playing with a juvenile sauropod type dinosaur.
· Middle Left – Front and Rear images of a figurine depicting two men attacking or subduing two juvenile sauropod type dinosaurs.
· Middle Top Center – Carnivorous type dinosaur with small grasping front limbs eating a fish.
· Middle Top Right – A Dimetrodon dinosaur figuring
· Middle Lower Center – Two females either playing or training two juvenile Sauropod type dinosaurs.
· Middle Center Right – A man stabbing a juvenile Sauropod dinosaur and the dinosaur is biting him on the side.
· Bottom Left – Three dinosaur figurines: two Triceratops, one Sauropod, one Triceratop dinosaurs with a man riding or attacking him. The Sauropod dinosaur is either eating a snake or had a long grooming tongue.
· Bottom Center and Right – Closer views showing the rosette pattern which is now known to be the pattern of skin common to many dinosaurs.
The study of sediment flow rate across the geological strata according to the research of Dr. Art Chadwich does not support such the thesis that this earth’s geological history is caused by a series of multiple catastrophes. Rather it suggests that one mega-catastrophe account for the geological record from at least the Permian to the Quaternary geological periods. Also it depicts that this catastrophe resulted in shifts of water currents across the face of entire continents in an era that was contiguous with the breakup of the North American and South American continental plates with the European and African plates that were joined together at Pangea. This entire catastrophe occurred while the entire continents were affected by massive shifts of sub-oceanic water. What else does a geologist need to confirm a Universal Flood?
Part One - Planetary Changes at the Time of the End
Part Two – Isaiah the Catastrophic Prophet
Earth History Research Center
A Model for Creation and the Flood of Noah - by Arthur Chadwick Ph.D
Megatrends in North American Paleocurrents – by Arthur Chadwick Ph.D
A Modern Framework for Earth Sciences in a Christian Context by Arthur Chadwick Ph.D.
The Search for Noah’s Ark – Lee Spencer Ph.D. and Jean Luc Lienard – Lea Spencer Ph.D. and Jean Luc Lienard
Ape, Apemen and Men by Lee Spencer Ph.D
Chicxulub Impact Crater
Chicxulub Impact Crater by The Encyclopedia for Astrobiology, Astronomy and Space Flight
Discovering the Impact Site by NASA/UA Space Imagery Center
Gravity Measurements over the Chicxulub Crater near the Yucatan Peninsula by Meteorite and Impact Advisory Committee (MIAC)
Dinosaur Extinction Page by A. Buckley
Chicxulub Debate by Princeton
Acambaro Human and Dinosaur Ceramic Collection
The Dinosaurs of Acambaro by Dennis Swift Ph.D.
Second Expedition by Patton and Swift
Photo gallery of Dinosaurs Figurines from Acambaro, Mexico by The Interactive Bible
The Julsrud Museum at Acambaro, Mexico by Omniology
The Julsrud Museum at Acambaro, Mexico by The Interactive Bible
Human Coexisting with Dinosaurs – Evolutionist’s Opinion by The Interactive Bible
Twelve Eyewitnesses to the Authentification of Acambaro by The Interactive Bible
Giants of the World by Mary Sutherland
Giants in Mexico by Mary Sutherland
Giants in Arizona by Mary Sutherland
ICA Figurines and Burial Stones of Peru
Evidence for Creationism in Geological and Paleontology by Henry and Joe Taylor with Omniology Website
Ancient Dinosaur Depiction on Stone by Genesis Park
The ICA Stones of Peru by Millennium Matters
The ICA Dinosaur ‘Burial Stones’ of Peru by Omniology
The ICA Ceramic Dinosaur Figurines of Peru by Omniology
The Mysterious ICA Stones by Steven Wagner
The ICA Stones of Peru by David Icke
Message from BibleSearchers
BibleSearchers scans the world for information that has relevance on the time of the end. It is our prayer that this will allow the believers in the Almighty One of Israel to “watch and be ready”. Our readiness has nothing to do trying to halt the progression of evil on our planet earth. In our readiness, we seek to be prepared for the coming of the Messiah of Israel so that goodness and evil will be manifested in its fullest. Our preparation is a pathway of spiritual readiness for a world of peace. Our defender is the Lord of hosts. The time of the end suggests that the Eternal One of Israel’s intent is to close out this chapter of earth’s history so that the perpetrators of evil, those that seek power, greed and control, will be eliminated from this planet earth. The wars of the heavens are being played out on this planet earth and humans will live through it to testify of the might, power, justice and the love of the God of Israel. In a world of corruption and disinformation, we cannot always know what the historical truth is and who is promoting evil or mis-information. We cannot guarantee our sources but we will always seek to portray trends that can be validated in the Torah and the testimony of the prophets of the Old and the New Testament.
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